Essay topic: Describe a science center.

The Singapore Science Centre is located on a six-hectare site in Jurong. At the centre, we can discover the wonders of science and technology in a fun way. Clap your hands and colorful bulbs will light up. Start a wheel spinning and it will set off a fan churning. It is a place to answer our curiosity and capture our imagination.The centre features over four hundred exhibits covering topics like solar radiation, communication, electronics, mathematics, nuclear energy and evolution. It aims to arouse interest in science and technology among us and the general public. The centre is the first science one to be established in South East Asia. It was opened in 1977 and it now receives an average of one thousand, two hundred visitors a day. The exhibits can be found in four exhibition galleries. They are the Lobby, Physical Sciences, Life Sciences and Aviation. These exhibits are renewed annually so as to encourage visitors to make return visits to the centre.Instead of the usual “Hands off” notices found in exhibition halls, visitors are invited to touch and feel the exhibits, push the buttons, turn the cranks or pedals. This is an interesting way to learn science even if you hate the subject. A Discovery Centre was built for children between the ages of three and twelve. This new exhibition gallery was completed in 1985. Lately this year a stone-age exhibit was built. It shows us about the animals and people which are extinct.

Essay topic: Talk about Shopping Centres.

Shopping is an enjoyable experience for the Singaporeans. All shopping centres are crowded with people. This is because all the things one needs can be purchased in one shopping complex. Singapore is blessed with so many shopping centres which have supermarkets, departmental stores, restaurants and a chain of other retail shops specialising in specific and general products. Singaporeans find it convenient as when everything is available under one roof instead.Singapore’s major shopping complexes are situated in the Orchard area and others are scattered over satellite towns and new town areas. The major advantage of shopping in these complexes is that all items from foodstuffs to household utensils are available in different brands from different countries. One has a variety of choices, the healthy competition benefits everyone as quality products can be purchased at economical prices. Supermarkets offer vegetables, fish, meat, cutlery, crockery, stationery and textiles.The shopping complex provides various facilities to attract the customers. It provides a clean environment with full lights, air conditioning and the products neatly displayed. Convenient car parks and additional facilities such as food stalls and fast food outlets are also given.The shoppers are not bothered by the rain or sunshine when they are in the shopping centre. Shopping offers a few hours of relaxation from their daily routine jobs.Singapore becomes a shoppers’ paradise during the festival seasons especially during Christmas, New Year, Chinese New Year, Hariraya.

Essay topic: At the bus-stop

Every morning, I wait at a bus-stop near my flat to take a bus to school. It is always very crowded. While waiting for the bus, I usually observe the people at the bus-stop. Some of them I have come to know by sight.One person who caught my attention is a tall and thin man wearing thick glasses. He always drops his files whenever his bus is coming. I guess that is because he is over-anxious to board the bus.Another person I have noticed is a shabbily-dressed old woman. Every morning, she carries one big bag full of pieces of cloth to the bus-stop. Once, she came with two big bags instead of one and she got stuck in the door of the bus. Luckily, the kind man with the thick glasses helped her to free herself. However, he dropped his files again while doing so.There is also a rude school-boy who always pushes his way up the bus instead of queuing up like the other passengers. This angers the other passengers. Once, he tried pushing his way past the old lady with the big bag. To my amusement, he was almost knocked down by the fat bag.There are indeed interesting things to note at a bus-stop if only one is observant.

Essay topic: A popular place in my town

I live in Seremban, the capital of Negri Sembilan in Malaysia Seremban is just about 60 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the nation’s capital. Compared to busy Kuala Lumpur, living in Seremban is much less hectic and the residents have more time for relaxation.The most popular place where the residents go to for relaxation has to be the Lake Gardens. Situated just beside the centre of town, it has two small lakes surrounded by lush green vegetation. A jogging track through the vegetation circles the area. Just beside the larger lake are a flower garden and an aviary.The flower garden contains many varieties of beautiful flowers. This place is the favorite of shutter-bugs. One can always see people posing for pictures beside the flowers. On Sundays the place is especially busy as brides and grooms flock to it to have their pictures taken.The aviary holds a modest number of birds. There are eagles, mynahs, parrots and others. The last time I was at the aviary, there was even a peacock that would not show his glory and a crane that stood so still that at first I mistook it for a dead tree.Every morning before the sun rises, people start to go towards the Lake Gardens. The Tai Chi brigade gets there first. These are usually senior citizens who practice this ancient Chinese art to stay healthy and supple. Judging by the number of practitioners of this art, I have to say it is very popular.As the sun rises younger people can be seen jogging around the jogging track. Some just walk briskly. Yet others just sit stroll leisurely on the grass taking in the cool morning air.After 4 p.m. the people come again. This time it is mainly young men and women who come to jog or just exercise themselves. Some come to visit the flower garden and the aviary together with their families.This goes on till dusk and when night takes over, the Lake Gardens is virtually deserted except for courting couples. Then peace reigns over the Lake Gardens until the next morning when once again the place comes alive.

Essay topic: Talk about a place of great natural beauty

It was the hour when the sun’s golden hue filled the horizon. I settled down comfortably on a huge rock jutting out from the foot of a cliff. It was a moment of joy as I watched the evening migration of the seagulls. I felt a strong urge to walk, and so I did. A strong craving for freedom arose in me as I walked on that lonely but nevertheless beautiful evening. My intention of visiting this place was to enjoy the peace and serenity that it offered. At the same time I longed to catch glimpses of the familiar yet extraordinary beauty of God’s creation. Indeed, I found that moment excellent for relaxing the stressful and tension filled minds of man who lives in this materialistic society.As I strolled along the beach, my rough feet touched the smooth white sand which seemed to gleam under the thin and dim rays of the setting sun. It was so gentle that I felt as if I was walking on a carpeted floor of a grand hotel. I looked ahead at the green, calm sea and my little heart was touched.The beauty, of which I was then the witness, was beyond description. I only wished that I was born an artist so that I could capture this wonder and preserve it in my paintings. Walking on, I was visited by ecstacy when the naughtily noisy waves splashed on my bare feet. Far along the other end of the beach were some fishermen busy preparing their fishing nets and touching up their boats before they resume their daily work in the open sea.Feeling tired after the long walk, I stopped and sat on a fallen coconut tree trunk. Even at this moment I could capture another aspect of the wonder of that evening. I was enthralled by the neat rows of coconut trees standing upright as if mocking the fishermen who were sweating and toiling to earn a living. The trees dancing and swaying to the music of the rushing waves made my heart sing to the matchless rhythm.As time passed, the sun was almost disappearing behind the horizon. Nevertheless, there was still a group of young boys, naked, playing police and thief and making sandcastles. They were happy in their innocence. The still evening air brought their laughter over the sands and into my ears. Somehow, within me glowed the strong urge to shout and tell the world the unsurpassable joy I was then feeling and to reveal my pleasure and gratitude to God, the Creator.Looking above me, at the clear blue sky, I could see tiny dots of stars beginning to appear jointly in the darkening sky. Then, my eyes caught the most beautiful sight. The beauty was inimitable. It was a group of long necked swans gently flying over the enormous ball of fire which was, a moment ago, shining in all its glory. The moon then appeared, taking the place of the sun. It was difficult to grasp the idea that the moon’s brightness is but a mere reflection of the sun’s light. This, to me, pointed to the harsh reality behind the beauty of man-made laws.As it was already dark, the fishing boats were out of sight and the children have gone home. Feeling lonely, I left the realm of all emotions, of love and trust and of life and death, which is the beautiful beach. The beauty will remain engraved in my heart for all eternity. This is the only place that narrates, on its own, the beauty of nature.

Essay topic: Talk about a bus ride.

The bus finally arrived! I quickly hopped onto it and chose a seat near the exit. Glancing at my watch, I realized that I would be in good time to meet Susan at the library. I then turned my attention to the rest of the passengers.The rattle of the engine and the heat of the blazing sun had sent some tired students on the bus into a deep sleep. I was amused to see them nodding like old men. One boy was even snoring away. The prim girl sitting next to him looked at him disapprovingly. I wondered how she could bear the heat in her long back gown. She alighted when the bus came to a beautiful mosque.Next to the mosque was a field where some boys were playing football. As the bus moved on, the trees and tall buildings seemed to whiz by. At this rate, I would be early for the appointment.In a short time, the bus reached the library. I alighted and walked towards the library. Construction work for an MRT station was underway nearby. Very soon, I would have an alternative means of transport to the library.

Essay topic: Talk about a cable-car ride.

A ride in the cable-car is one of the most exciting and enjoyable experiences one can have. The cable-car is really a carriage which hangs from a strong steel cable suspended in the air. It moves along the cable with other cars on pulleys, the wheels of which are turned by electric motors. The cars are painted in eye catching colors and spaced at regular intervals. Each car can take up to six person. After the passengers have entered a car, they are locked in from outside by an attendant. They have no control over the movement of the car.Before long, the passengers get a breath-taking view, through the glass windows, of the modern city of Singapore, the bustling harbor, and the several islands off the coast.In contrast to the fast moving traffic on the ground, the cars in the air move in a leisurely manner, allowing passengers more than enough time to take in the scenery during the brief trip to the island of Sentosa. The return journey is no less exciting than the outward trip.

Essay topic: Talk about a slow train journey.

There is only train plying from X to Y, I had no other choice. The line is a narrow gauge. It passed through farming country and it mainly carried farm produce, although passengers were often using it too. At every station on the way to be loaded and unloaded involving much shunting which took a lot of time. It took nearly four hours for a distance of 60 km.I traveled once by that train. At first I could not believe that a train (in this age) could go so slowly. I had to put up with it. The train moved at a snail’s pace and one could almost get down and get back on it. I did not try it because it was not safe for such foolhardy experiments.The train stopped to pick up baskets of eggs, hens, vegetables and other farm produce. Naturally, those who traveled by this wonderful train were farm workers moving either form one estate to another or going to town for a change. The train was not clean. The familiar sights of newspaper and magazines were not found at the stations. The stations on the way were manned by a skeleton staff, the station master and the pointsman doing all the duties. There are only two trains for the whole day and life to them is boring.The journey was interesting for me and I got down whenever the train stopped to load or unload. There was no milling crowd of color I could see. There was not even a soft beverage to drink I could see. How they shunted the wagons. It was interesting to see the people who came to take their goods. There were all sorts of baskets, hampers and baggages. One of the loading was done, the train would start again and go on.Since the train ran through farming country. I could see farms all the way, with their gardens, poultry, cattlesheds and granary. I couldn’t see any tall building. I could see a calf looking with fear at the streaming train: a half of naked boy goggling at the passing train and people engaged in the farming activities.After a while, it all got boring. Anyway, it was good to relax from a hectic city life.

Essay topic: On a rainy day

This year, the summer season was unduly long and extremely hot compared to past years. The average temperature was between 25 degrees and 34 degrees Celsius. Adding to the misery, the water consumption was rising daily, sending an alarming hue and cry from the authorities. The schools had re-opened. The scorching sun and the stifling heat made our school life uncomfortable.One morning, just when the classes started, there was a sudden darkness. We saw threatening black clouds gathered in the sky. There were vivid flashes of lighting too. Suddenly it started to rain. In the beginning, it was only a drizzle; but soon the drizzle turned into a heavy downpour.The rain continued for hours. We regretted not bringing our umbrellas. Some of my classmates rushed out to play in the rain refreshing themselves with the cool air and rain. The rain slowly receded and we all rushed out.The plight of the bus commuters was of course pitiable. Buses was late and overcrowded. Some of my friends decided to take a walk in the cool weather instead of standing in the long queue.Nearing home, I saw children playing with paper boats in the pool of water outside our center court yard.It is exhilarating to watch pouring rain and even more exhilarating to play in it. However, I was happy to be home and to be relieved of my wet clothes.

Essay topic: Talk about a rainy morning

Outside poured the rain. It was so snug and comfortable in bed. I did not want to get up, but unfortunately it was a Monday morning. I could see the light of morning coming through my window and I knew I had to get up. Why can’t today be Sunday? I thought. Then I would not have to get out of the warm bed. It was so pleasant there. However, the rain did not care whether it was a Monday or a Sunday. So I reluctantly got up.After going through my morning routine in the toilet, I felt a little more alive. The warm bed was still inviting but I had to get ready to go to school. So I dressed up, picked up my bag and descended the stairs to the dining room below.My parents, sisters and brothers were already having their breakfast. I sat down and helped myself. Everyone was quiet as we ate our breakfast. Anyway the noise made by the pouring rain made conversation a bit hard and recently awakened people tended to be on the quiet side. Anyway rain always made me hungry, so I had a hearty breakfast.Although the time showed seven, the sky was still not very bright. The dark clouds and the pouring rain kept the sky looking drab and grey. My father said that we have to get going, rain or not, or we would be late for school. My mother countered by saying that it was better to be late than wet. My father relented and so we waited for a while in the house for the rain to subside.Fifteen minutes later, the rain slowed down sufficiently for my father to reserve out his car. We all packed ourselves into it, all five children. We waved farewell to our mother and soon we were on our way to school.My father drove very carefully. He switched on the headlights and wiper. Soon the screen misted up and he had to switch on the air conditioner.On the way to school, I saw other not-so-fortunate school children and adults walking along the road or waiting for the bus. Each of them had some kind of raincoat on or carried an umbrella. There were puddles of water on the road, by the side of the road, in fact, everywhere. The rain had not stopped and the drains were filled to the brim. Water overflowed onto the road, making it hazardous for the users.Anyhow we arrived at our schools without any mishaps. My sisters got out at the convent while my brothers and I went further on to another school. The rain had slowed to a drizzle so as soon as we got out of the car, we dashed to our classrooms. We had to be careful not to slip. Anyway we made it to our classrooms. Some of my classmates were already there. Some were soaking wet while others were slightly wet like me.The school bell rang, but not even half of the class was present. Even the teacher had not come. So we sat down in the class and waited for the others to come. Meantime there was nothing to do but to talk with each other and wished that we were all in our warm beds.Outside it drizzled on.

Essay topic: A day at the market

Last Sunday, I woke up early to go to the market with my mother. After taking breakfast, I carried my mother’s shopping basket and we left for the market.The market is only a few blocks away from my flat. When we reached the place, it was already very crowded. I was surprised to see men in the market besides the housewives. There were also a few children following their mothers obediently. The whole place was very noisy. I could hear the stall keepers and their customers bargaining loudly over the prices of the goods.There were many stalls in the market. First, we went to the vegetable stall to buy some cabbages, carrots and tomatoes. Then we bought some pork from the butcher’s and a salmon and some prawn form the fishmonger’s. We proceeded to the poultry stall to get a fat chicken.Very soon, we found that we could hardly carry any more things. However, my mother insisted that we buy some fruits before going home. Despite of being very tired, I was glad that I had been of help to my mother.

Essay topic: Talk about a fire drill

Fire drills help students to be prepared mentally and physically when a fire breaks out. It is held in all schools. My school is no exception.Yesterday, when we were attending an English lesson, the school bell rang continuously. The whole class did not know what was going on. Our form teacher, Miss Li, realized that it was a fire drill and told us so. All of us got up from our seats immediately and queued up in an orderly manner along the corridor. With the class register in her hands, Miss Li led us to the field. We walked swiftly. At the field, we saw the other classes and teachers gathering excitedly. Miss Li then took our class attendance, making sure that everyone was present.When everyone was at the field, our principal made a short speech. He said that we had responded rather well to the fire drill. However, he felt that we could have done better. Firstly we took quite a while to realize what the ringing of the bell meant. Secondly, some students wasted time packing their books.The fire drill had indeed been beneficial

Essay topic: A wedding celebration

Weddings are grand affairs. Normally, it only occurs once in a lifetime. It brings about a bondage between a man and a woman. Recently I attended the wedding of my classmate’s sister. It was performed in a community center auditorium. The auditorium was converted into a fairyland. The stage was all illuminated with different color bulbs and decorated with pots of flowers, pots and other glittering decorations. A magnificent platform was erected which held two throne – like chairs for the bride and the bridegroom.The platform and the stage looked like the banquet hall of a five-star hotel with its thick red carpets and floral decorations. The cool fragrance was so strong that everyone left sleepy. There was a place by the side for music troops with their enormous music instruments. They played loud and soft music. The wedding day was on Sunday. The guests were very well dressed, which added to the atmosphere.The bridegroom party arrived in seven cars, they were welcomed. Dancing was also arranged. They were pleased with the warm welcome. Two video and cameramen, photographers were busy capturing the scenes with their equipment. The bridegroom was escorted to the throne. The bride followed in glittering red dress, escorted by her friends. They walked in a slow and doll-like pace. After some minor ceremonies they were officially announced as man and wife.The wedding was also an occasion for socializing. Many of my friends were there and we had many happy moments. As one by one went to the stage to offer them best wishes and presents, I also stood in line to offer them my best wishes with a present. Then I went home taking with me the pleasant memories.

Essay topic: A fashion show

Fashion show is one of the ways of advertisement. This is to attract to the attention of the public and to educate them on the coming fashion. If it is put crudely, it is to brain wash the public that these shows are held. Unlike the advertisement in the newspapers, a fashion show has the glamour of music, color, light and all theatrical effect. Since live models are used, it becomes very realistic and the audience has got a chance to see, discuss and criticize, and have some fun at the expense of the models. So there is no denying the fact that the fashion shows have become the fashion of the day and they have become pace setters of a fashion.

Thus recently I had an occasion to attend a fashion show organized by the Textile Mills Association and the Garment Makers’ guild. This was held in the City Hall on a Sunday so that more people could attend. The Hall was very tastefully decorated. The stage was set in such a way that the models could be viewed to advantage. The lighting was first class with concealed lights and provision for color lighting. Admission was by special invitation; otherwise the organizers could not control the crowd. Since my father received an invitation, we went to the show. Some soft music was played to enliven the show.

The selected models were ones who had been taken for their attractive personality. There were men’s, women’s and children’s models. One by one they paraded on the stage and when they came there and walked across the stage showing their dress to the audience, some salesmen at the microphone would describe the fabric, the name of the mill that had produced it and the name of the fashion. At the same time, printed forms of the fashion was distributed to the audience.

Men wearing office dress, casuals, hunting dress, sports wear and dinner dress appeared on the stage. The Olympic suit specially created for the coming Olympics was shown. A team of athletes wearing the suit paraded on the stage. Women in all types of dresses both oriental and accidental were there. The materials of which their dresses were made varied from cotton to polyester. There were women wearing Indian sarees, Japanese kimonos, bikinis and swim suits and Maxi’s. there was also a model who was wearing a casual dress made of paper. The announcer said that the paper dress was cheaper and disposable and it could be used in the operation theater and so on.

It was not all a show of the grown-ups. There were children between three and eight, both boys and girls who presented the latest version of children’s wear. Some of the children who appeared on the stage were very smart and they enjoyed the fun.

What attracted me most was the beach dress which when worn could give a camouflage effect. Besides it was said that the material was waterproof, non-smelling and light.

It was a delightful show and the audience had an enjoyable evening. The fashions book which was for sale was in great demand. So there is no gain saying that I too enjoyed the show very much.

Essay topic: Night market

Two days before the Chinese New Year, there is always a night market in our place. The night market is put up every year during this season.

It happened this year that I took my sister to the night market. When we arrived at the market, it was crowded. Slowly people increased and there was soon a very big and noisy crowd.

At the market, there were many things on sale: toys, clothes, books, stationery, edible things, flowers, materials, kitchen wares, cosmetics and many other things. Stall-keepers were shouting at the tops of their voice trying to attract buyers. Customers were talking and bargaining. Housewives were looking for things they wanted to buy.

My sister and I were moving from one stall to another. While we were looking at the things, there was a big noise from two stalls away. A fat woman was quarreling with a thin stall-keeper about the price of some goods. They were shouting angrily at each other. More and more people gathered to watch the quarrel. After a while the fat woman threw back the thing and left.

After watching the quarrel, we decided to go home. We were tired and our legs were arching, but we enjoyed the visit.

Essay topic: Underwater discovery

One Sunday, I managed to talk my uncle into bringing me along on a snorkeling trip. My uncle is a diver and I have been taking swimming lessons under his instruction for a few years.

We spent ten minutes warming up before we dived into the deep blue sea. I was surprised to find myself swimming alongside sea creatures. Fishes of all shapes and sizes swam by. There were also strange-looking plants and I was enchanted by the beautiful underwater world.

I saw huge plants with numerous finger-like “petals”, opening and closing restlessly. Some small fish swimming near the plant were caught amongst the “petals” as they closed. I also saw a sea-horse swimming right in front of my eyes. I was very excited and tried to grab it, but it was too quick for me. Then came a jelly-fish which looked like a gigantic mushroom dancing gracefully in the deep sea-water. I avoided it as I did not wish to be stung.

I was reluctant to surface but my uncle insisted that it was time to go back. However, I was very pleased with the beautiful and rare corals I had picked up. It was certainly an exciting and fruitful trip.

Essay topic: Talk about a Aerospace Exhibition

The Singapore Aerospace Exhibition was held at the Changi Airport Terminal for four days. The last two days were opened to the public. As Sunday was the last day, I went with my friends to see the exhibition. Special buses were arranged from Tampines interchange to the venue of the exhibition.

We all arrived there by 9 a.m. and were shocked to see a very long queue of people at the Changi bus stop. We have no other choice but to join in the queue. The Sun was hot and it was only at 10 o’clock that we were able to buy our entry tickets. There was a drink stall which offered ice cold drinks and it was a great relief for us.

We went inside the first gallery. A big red striker jet welcomed us. There were officers everywhere guiding us. There were representative companies from all over the world. Major companies such as Boeing, Lock-head, Rolls Royce and other European companies monopolized the show. Equipments were neatly arranged. There were catalogues everywhere. Hangars were converted into galleries. We were astounded to see the various types of aircrafts.

Starting from trainer single seat aircraft, there were planes, jets, small, medium and big dragon size helicopters. We posed in front of the aircrafts and took many photos. The next section was fighter aircraft, like F.16, F.18, Jaguars Mig 18, 21, 29… Each aircraft had its own improvised system. We only partially understood the explanation given by the officers.

We had to queue for a bus to see the passenger aircrafts which range from ordinary one to the most luxurious one. There was a large crowd as these aircraft are familiar to most people unlike the fighter jets and helicopters. At 3 p.m. the Singapore Air Force performed the spectacular air-show over the Changi sea. On seeing the show our tiredness disappeared. Determined to become pilots, we came home.

Essay topic: Talk about a trishaw rider

Trishaw riders can be seen in areas frequented by tourists, in particular around Little India. A trishaw rider is no doubt a hardworking man. In Singapore trishaw riders are source of attention to the visiting tourists from developed countries.

A trishaw rider is tactful and understands the temperament of tourists. He acts as guide to the tourists. The nature of his work requires energy and strength. A trishaw rider enjoys taking tourists around and acts as a host. The tourist feels relaxed and takes in the city sights.

A trishaw rider has to ride his vehicle on the roads. He has to work in any weather. He has to be ready to take the passenger to any destinations.

A trishaw knows few joys and entertainment. All his joys rest with the service he renders to the passengers. The tourist brings home with him the memory of the trishaw rides.

Essay topic: Talk about the life of a farmer

Mr. Lim is a farmer by profession and he is proud of being one. His holdings are small, but he feels they are enough for him.

He owns a few hectares of good land, a ploughing machine and a small cottage. His fields are fed with water from a stream. As a modern farmer he has a pumpset for pumping water. So his fields are never allowed to go dry. He grows mainly paddy, in a small patch of land he has the vegetable garden.

Usually he is an early riser. He starts his pump and waters his fields. He will be going round to see whether water does not overflow. He may remove the weeds from among the plants. He goes into the vegetable garden to see if there is any pick for the day. He trims the hedges, digs the plots or dresses them up for the next planting. He is fond of his flower pots of which he has a few. He takes pride in them.

After these morning rounds he takes his breakfast. It is his gossiping time. He meets others and takes part in the village gossip. He cannot read, he learns about with morning news. As it is common nowadays, he discusses with his friend the day’s politics. Sometimes, the commission agent may come, and our friend will talk to him about the market prospects.

In the afternoon, after a wash and a lunch, he stretches himself for a mid-days siesta. He gets up and after a cup of tea, he goes to the fields and sees everything is in order. Then he takes a stroll in the nearly towns and makes some purchases for the house. That is also the time for him to meet friends and exchange views.

He returns home and had an early dinner. He plans for the next day. Sometimes it may be taking the grains to the market, it may be transplanting; some other times it may be taking the machine for repair. Thus he leads a simple life and he is contented.

Essay topic: Parent: - I know what life is like. If you have any sense take my advice. Young person: - the world has changed since you were young...

Essay topic:
Parent: - I know what life is like. If you have any sense take my advice.
Young person: - the world has changed since you were young. You don’t understand our problem today. Besides we ought to be free to do what we like.

What are your views on this argument?

As an old saying goes all that is old is not necessarily good and all that is new is also not necessarily bad; the wise person weighs between these two maxims before he arrives any conclusion. This is true of the way of life led from generation to generation. Take for instance writing materials. From the days of pens dipped in ink, we have traversed a long way and now living in a generation using ball point pens. An old man used to the olden pens need not feel sorry that those days are gone; nor should the young ones gloat over him. What is written is more important than the material used. People who used old style of pens and crude sheets like papyrus or the vellum were also great in history.

What has been said of the pen is also true of many other things in life, whether it be dress, food, housing, lighting and entertainment. In the matter of dress, the materials have changed and the way of stitching it has changed. But the fact that clothes are used for covering the body remains unchanged. What is elegant and comely in one generation need not be so in the next. From mini to max: and back, there is a swing. Somebody sets the fashion and the media makes it appear popular so the younger generation readily accepts it whereas the old generation looks upon it with suspicion and disapproval. This is so with many things in life. Even with behavior and morals this is so.

What is considered the norm these days is not approved by the older generation. Copy books maxims do not go well with the younger generation. Take for instance smoking. In some societies it is taken for granted trough a wise parent may not like his son smoking.

One must admit that the question of nature versus nurture has been superseded by the environment which plays a crucial role today. In fact, environment factors have always influenced man’s life and it can be rightly said that the environment has always been a factor in the march of civilization; only the panorama changes very fast because of swift communication and the induction of technology in every aspect of life. Whether many of these things are necessary is a matter of opinion. The spoken voice gave birth to the recorded voice, so from the gramophone disc we have now come to the cassettes. The camera gave birth to the cinema which in turn has become almost obsolete with the coming of the television. One must look at the use rather than the instrument. Our forefathers were using open fires for cooking but now it is the electric ovens or gas. A modern kitchen is a very nice place compared to the one in the good old days.

If it is a question of morality, then some serious thinking must go into it. Morality as conceived by man has been built into the society concerned. The diction “Thou shalt not steal” is true and good today as it was in ancient days. In behavior the older ones may be a model. In courtesy, in table manners, in good neighborliness and many other things, the elder one must not only be a role model but also initiator for practical reasons.

Beliefs are easily shaken nowadays. The society is not a closed one as it was. So youngsters come across different faiths and beliefs and rightly or wrongly take to one of them. Take for instance, the hippie cult. It has caught the imagination of many youths to the rude shock of elderly people. It is very difficult to change the younger generation. The ideas of fun and pleasure are changing. Boys and girls moving freely may be a shock to the older generation. A wise parent cannot put a brake suddenly but can slowly bring into the mind of the young ones the dangers of free love.

Besides the parent, the society itself has a part to play in this aspect. The church, the newspaper and magazines, the TV and other media can play a vital role in bringing about a healthy society. Bringing up the younger generation is like walking a tight rope. The parents’ role is really a difficult one. A child cannot be brought up completely insulated from outside influences. This generation gap will continue and will be brought into sharp focus because of the fast moving world we live in nowadays.

Essay topic: “Neither physics nor chemistry could have reached its present level without mathematics.” Explain from either physics or chemistry.

One of the greatest achievements of science is to find relations and properties and explain them explicitly in the form of a mathematical formula. Relations in physical science cannot be subjective as in the case of humanities. When viewed mathematically, there seems to be a precision in almost all scientific phenomena. Not only qualities but also quantities are involved in science. When we say that H2O stands for a molecule of water; it explains many things; how many atoms of Hydrogen are combined with how many atoms of Oxygen and what is the molecular weight. When physical sciences use formulae, it is nothing but putting things in mathematical pattern. These formulae explain a world of things. Mathematics also has a simple but grand way of explaining things.

A few examples would suffice to prove this statement. Take for example areas of physics. We speak of the atomic weight. It is only a mathematical concept to say that the atomic weight of Hydrogen is 1 and that of oxygen is 16. Indirect measurements made in different ways help to arrive at this conclusion.

Which physics student does not know that F = MA; MA stands for force measured in terms of mass and acceleration. To explain “force” verbally may be very difficult but once the concept of the formula has been caught, force is no more a difficult thing to conceive. The formulae relating to the gas laws are again wonderful. Look at P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 . This equation, gas equation, as it is called brings about a holy wedlock between Boyle’s law and Charles’ Laws. Where quantities of gases are involved, this equation is useful. Mathematical reasoning has helped to formulate an Absolute Scale of temperature, though so far nobody has arrived at the formula for Absolute Zero.

One more example is Einsteins formula E=mc2. Where E is energy, m is mass and c is the velocity of light. What a world of potentiality it has! This tiny formula had in it the seed for nuclear physics. It also shows how two entities which were thought to be separate are indeed different phases of the same matter. Mass and energy are no more separate.

There is no are where mathematics has not played its part. Thus, it is safe to conclude that physical sciences have reached their present heights due to mathematics, with all its precision, conciseness and objectivity.

Essay topic: Men’s enemy in the world of nature

Somebody has observed that man is born free but everywhere he is in chains. Though this was said in some other circumstances, ma is not so free. From birth to death, he has to contest with his enemies. Where the enemy is known, man has always found ways and means of combating it. If it is disease, he has medicines for it. He would set up snares and catch certain types of enemies. He would kill them with slings, bows and arrows, spears and guns and so on. But the story of man, when he cannot fight his enemy, is helplessness as in the case of a big storm.

Among the animate enemies, the bacteria and virus are the worst for one does not know when they may strike for they are lurking everywhere only to enter the human system and play havoc. Long, long ago man believed that diseases were caused by evil sports and hence he tried to appease them by sacrifices and by worshipping them. Now thanks to the advance of science and invention of scientific instruments especially the microscope and the X-ray machines, man knows diseases are caused by bacteria and virus. He knows also how to prevent falling prey to those diseases. He has in repertoire sulpha drugs and antibiotics, vaccines and serums. Almost all epidemic diseases have become things of the past. For instance, small pox, the scourge which was taking away a toll of men has been eradicated practically from the face of the earth. Only cancer is defying all treatment.

Man has to be wary about insects that bite because he cannot hope to eradicate them. From experience he has come to know of medicines for such things, for example snake bites can be treated with serum.

Man has enemies among animals such as tigers, wolves and foxes. They do not attack man unless he interferes with them. These animals have their part to play in the ecological balance. Even the dog, man’s best friend can prove as an enemy especially when it becomes mad. The bite of a mad dog causes rabies; thanks to the pioneering effort of Louis Pasteur and anti-rabies vaccine has been prepared and has proved a blessing in healing dog bites.

These are also other types of enemies which destroy man’s food. For example, rats and other rodents destroy sizable quantities of grains and fruits. But man with experience and scientific skills has overcome these enemies. He builds rat proof warehouses where grains are dusted with chemicals so that they do not rot. He keeps food items in cold storage and thus preserves them.

There are then the enemies from the very elements themselves. The life giving atmosphere may prove fearsome when it turns into a storm or tornado. With scientific instruments man is able to forecast a coming storm. Similarly the rain, snow, ice and frost may prove to be enemies when they occur. Rain destroys life and property and leaves destruction when it recedes. Fog has caused many disasters on land and in water such as ships colliding, air crashes and land accidents. Ice was known to have broken ships. But the dangers from them are being minimized because of sophisticated apparatus man has at his command. Mother earth herself very often makes up her mind to heave and shake. These earthquakes do cause a heavy loss almost every year.

The worst enemy of man is death. One does not know what death is except that all the organs fail to function. Man may argue as to how death is caused, but nevertheless it does occur at every age and in all places at all times. There is none who is not afraid of death. People carry mascots and talismans to avoid death. The mystery of death is so deep that a lot of theories have sprung up about it. It may be a friend in certain cases and it may appear cruel in other cases. Whether death is an enemy or a friend depends on how one views it.

So one can conclude that man is always surrounded by enemies and if at all he survives, it is indeed a miracle.

Essay topic : Should a factory be built in your community?

There must still be negative thoughts that a factory should not be set up near a community. Although it is likely that no one totally oppose against the opinion, a serious consideration for the advantages and disadvantages of growing a factory in a certain place is a logical necessity. In fact, it can bring benefits to this locality while it cannot do to another. As for the area where I am living, a larger number of its people including me are supporting the decision to build up a factory in it.

The most positive and enormous advantage to be found is that it can turn the place into a more modern and convenient one. The fact that a lot more people will move to the area for jobs and easier lives is a motive to construct more apartments and houses. In the wake of the population growth, shopping malls, hospitals, and schools turn up. Its residents will not have to travel a long distance downtown to go shopping or to visit health center to see doctors. The better schools will be places to train people to become good and responsible citizens and to offer virtuous talents to lead the community to further development. Life then will be a comfort.

In addition, since a factory needs employees to work in it, it will tackle the unemployment problem. With so many people are not offered jobs becoming jobless, burglaries and robberies go up. Therefore, unemployment is being regarded as the primary problem of economic policy. To handle that, allowing a factory is a must. When people can earn money and have jobs to do, the society will not only be lighten this kind of burden it is carrying but also assist to reduce others. An example is charity. People who can earn money can help less lucky others.

The last but not least advantage is that since many jobs and opportunities are offered, a large factory moves many people with different cultures and thoughts to the community. As a result, chance to enrich knowledge and to broaden experience arises. The local people will have a wide variety of mental lives. For instance, they will add more kinds of food to their meals. These kinds may be brought by the immigrants from other parts of the nation. Further more, they will relax with a diversity of entertainment.

To sum up, although there are some disadvantages such as noise, harmful exhaust, traffic jams, the benefits the factory provide totally convince me to admit that it is advisable to have a large factory in my community in the hope that the region become better.

Essay topic: Are books more important than experience?

If someone who wants to learn how to swim or drive a car just reads through books and never experiences himself, he cannot be successful. This example can tell us how important it is to gain knowledge from experience. However, a larger knowledge is acquired from books since book is a good teacher. Almost everything can be learned through book. In fact, book is more important than experience for three reasons.

The first reason is that some knowledge cannot be learned from experience. It is undoubted that knowledge which is recorded by scientists or people from ancient times to present can only be acquired from books. Book not only give us excellent reference on things occurring in the past, but also offer many ideas on what is happening in the world today and even on what may go on in the future. Without recorded source like books, it is hard for us to inherit the large amount of precious knowledge from forefathers? Another example is that you can learn the outer space. Obviously, it is impossible for one to obtain such knowledge through experience.

An additional reason why knowledge from books is estimated more valuable source is that it is not only a broad and major source but also an effective way to learn. Gaining knowledge from such source saves plenty of time and energy. It is not necessary for a college student to test every theory in experience. In contrast to experience, books help people understand theories more quickly and even much better.

The last but not the least reason is that knowledge from experience is remarkably limited in comparison with knowledge gained from books. As human life is limited, if one wants to improve mental powers, one had better read books. As a matter of fact, reading books extend aid to develop personality and moral integrity. Above all, books enrich us with vast knowledge.

In conclusion, it is argued that book is a more important source of knowledge than experience. Knowledge from such source is proven less errors and less time to gain. Knowing the value of books, people should spend more time of a day reading them to receive benefits for a intellectual and active life.

Essay topic: Why people should go to university?

People go to universities for a variety of reasons. Improving knowledge while learning in university is often believed the most important one. Consequently, they can apply the knowledge in their future jobs. Some attend primarily to establish new friendships in such an environment, or to spend their new lives far from home with the thought of being mature. On the contrast to those aforementioned, others can have opportunity to study what they are interested in. However, most cases agree that career preparation is the most driving force for students to enroll in a college or university.

First of all, one can acquire certain knowledge. In general, knowledge that a person gain can be used fairly well in this field while it can be unsuitable to apply in the other one. As a result, it is the knowledge only gained in a long-term trial in university which brings one a real confidence to choose a worthwhile job. Further more, bright ideas or great practical creativities a person comes up with are often related to what he or she has already mastered. With such ideas or creativities, work will be more fascinating and interesting. In other words, university is a good place for career preparation.

The next reason is seeking friendships. Undoubtedly, good friends who are at the same age and have the same hobbies can be easily found in campus. Let us consider the advantages of establishing a new friendship. Obviously, making friends in university can help one learn and live much harmoniously. Moreover, college friends may be long stayed even after university’s time. Friends from university can exchange knowledge and experience in the dealing problems while working. Some of those friends may be found as partners in business. Thus, friendship is career preparation.

Additionally, living away from home is also career preparation. This new environment is a hardship for some students to live. Meanwhile, it challenges others. Some find it as a valuable life experience and enjoy it. Whatever it is, a student must put himself or herself partly or totally on his or her own foot. Students become more and more responsible for their lives and for themselves. They start to penetrate how hard their parents work to meet their demands of lives. It is often seen that students earn money for their college tuition. Those away-from-home experiences assist them in getting used to dealing with problems in their lives or their future careers in particular.

Lastly, specialized knowledge on a certain field of study a person is most interested in plays a major role in one’s decision to attend a college or university. Nowadays it is essential for a key employee to have professional education and remarkable working skills. Therefore, students go to university to have specialized knowledge with a hope that in the future they can find an ideal job as their expectation.

In conclusion, although there are four typical example reasons why people should go to university, they lead to the only main one. That is career preparation which is what pushes a very large number of people around the world to attend colleges and universities.

Essay topic: Has the ease of cooking improved people’s life?

A decent meal has recently become easier to prepare. As a matter of fact, food can be made easily and quickly with fewer efforts. As a result, people can have much more time doing other things. It is my opinion that, the ease of cooking has improved human life.

First of all, fewer efforts are put and less time is spent to make a meal. In the past, people themselves had to make all the material for cooking. Let me make this clear by giving an example. Before people fried something, cooking oil had to be made from pig’s fat. It is now handy for oil is displayed with many brands in the supermarket. To add to convenience for housewives, supermarket serves half-done food, which has simplified the cooking activities. What they do is processing the prepared material to meet their eating taste. It is easily to find that cooking is not such a complicated thing to do as it used to.

Another reason where this change has improved people’s life is that people can have more plenty of time for other activities. Although cooking is an art, modern people who are so busy in their work do not want to spend much of their time on this activity. They like to make simple dish. There is a thought that many other things in life are more important than eating. Consequently, time spent on food preparation is considered a waste of time. In fact, people need more time to take care of their children and their families instead of stomaches. Since people do not have to spend so much time cooking as before, they can plan more other activities. For instance, business people have more time to design their arrangements. In general, people will have a greater opportunity to take care of their minds and hearts.

In short, with the two reasons mentioned, life has improved because of the ease of cooking. This ease has made it easier for people to enjoy a wonderful dinner at home and to pursue their interests.

Essay topic: Computer has made life easier?

Computer is widespreadly used. It can be found in schools, in offices, even in homes. Every body rushes to learn how to use computers to have the advantages coming from this modern machine. In fact, computer has made life easier.

Computer helps people do many things quicker and faster than they did before. A very clear evidence is that documents can be composed without papers. In our forefathers’ time, a draft paper should be used before they have a finished one. After draft, they must spend a certain time to rewrite in another paper to make it better to look at. Besides, there are many soft-wares which can be installed into computers to reduce the amount of time for the accomplishment of tasks. Typically, with Photoshop, a comic-book author duplicates the same pictures without drawing them from time to time.

The second reason for the fact that computer has made life easier is its storage capability. Office workers nowadays escape the working environment with occupation of documents. As a matter of fact, all the documents are converted into file formats and are stored in the hard disk, which also help the looking for documents easier and more rapid. Further more, the documents in files are able to be copied and sent among computers in all over the world. In other words, people no longer move so many documents in papers from place to place when they must move their working offices.

Last but not least, people can entertain with computers. With computers have nowadays been linked together in the world wide web, searching information or reading newspaper can be done at home without going out of house. A son can easily find an old song for his father in just some minutes with google search engine and his father can enjoy the song sooner than he expected in his childhood’s time. More amazingly, people can buy things from home if they know how to use basic computer and internet. Most often, people use computers to play games online. This is a very modern type of relaxing and spending their leisure time.

In summary, people are used to the advantages brought from a so-called wonder of science. Although there are some disadvantages of using computers people have not counted, computer obviously becomes a friend of every body. This facility is still studied for more utilities to serve human beings.

Essay topic: My mother

I am living with my parents. My mother is 45 years old. She is not very beautiful, but there is something attractive about her.

Her face is oval with big brown eyes and red lips, which are always smiling. She has long black hair, a slim build and a fair complexion. Her character is admirable. She is very sweet and kind to her husband and children. She never gets angry with anyone. As a simple person, she does not like wearing expensive clothes and jewels. She is very busy with the housework from early morning until late at night.

I love my mother very much. I miss her a lot when I am away from her for a long time. When I am free, I help my mother with the washing, cooking and errands. I always obey and respect my mother and try to study hard to please her.

I wish she would live with me forever.

Essay topic: My daily activities

Every morning from Monday to Saturday, I get up at 6 o'clock. After breakfast, I go to school by bicycle. It takes me about 20 minutes from my house to my school. Usually, I study at school until 11:30 a.m. I return home at noon to have lunch with my family. In the afternoon I attend English and computer courses. I always get home just in time for dinner at 7:30 p.m. After dinner, while my parents are watching television in the living-room, I read books or prepare for school in my own room.I am free at weekends. On Sunday mornings, I get up later than usual. Then I often go shopping downtown with my friends. Sometimes we go for a picnic in the countryside. On rainy Sundays, I stay at home reading books and listening to music.I am quite happy with my daily activities.

Essay topic: A house I would like to live in

I would like to live in a house by the sea where I can see the sun rise and set every day.This is how I will want my house to be like. After passing the front gate, there will be a lovely rose garden. Then, the big white house comes into view. When I walk through the door, a white sitting room with a pink sofa set will greet me. Paintings of beautiful flowers hanging on the walls will make the room look comfortable and fresh.The three bedrooms will be on the second level. One is for my parents, one for my brother and one for me. I will like my room to be painted pink. Above my bed, I will hang a big picture of ballerina dressed in white. The grey carpet on the floor will be strewn with many cushions for me to lie on and enjoy a novel. I will do my homework at my study table by the window though which I can see the stars at night.On the highest level there will be an open space which overlooks the sea. It will be used for barbecues in the evening.No matter how fine this house may seem, it is just a dream. What is reality for me is a three-room flat in Tiong Bahru.

Essay topic: My perfect house

I can now sit back and heave a big sigh of relief. The finished decor of my house is worth every cent of my hard earned money and every unit of my energy. Now, I can simply enjoy the little paradise that I have created.By observing the exterior, one will get the impression of a cottage in the country-side. The stark white color of the house is toned down by the rows of palm trees and shrubs in the front lawn. The multi-colored flowers greet me every morning as I sit on my rocking chair and enjoy the fresh morning air.Within the house, a similar condition prevails. The perpetual open windows allow for healthy ventilation and full view of the serene and beautiful garden. The living room boasts of a dark mahogany sofa set which is complemented by parquet flooring. Just a few meters away, I have created a “corner of peace” as I call it; and this is for the purpose of relaxation. I have placed a large durable rug, some cushions, some magazines and books for leisure reading and a small, portable radio.Contrary to the condition of informality of the areas I have mentioned, the dining area portrays unmatched grandeur. The entrance to it consists of magnificent archways and pillars which will remind one of the intricate Roman architecture. The windows are deliberately draped with dramatic purple-colored velvet curtains done up with frills and tassels. To top them all, I have purposely chosen my furniture that bears an Elizabethan air of supremacy. To complete the atmosphere, I have added a beautiful chandelier to brighten up the dining area. This part of my house is the source of my pride especially on occasions when I have to entertain important guests.The kitchen is another place of extreme importance. I have managed to come up with a splendid arrangement of kitchen cabinets, refrigerator and cookers and an undoubtedly perfect color combination. Because this area is where food is prepared, I made sure that I allowed for maximum hygiene. I have my oven and refrigerator built into the cabinet. My cooker is next to the wash basin and my little portable waste basket which comes with tight-fitting lid is directly below it. The kitchen also offers an extended table attached to the cabinet that can be utilized as an informal dining area. The toilets, not to be ignored, have also been scrupulously planned. To with stand continuous splashing of water, I have chosen durable, tinted sliding doors. I have also thrown rubber mats on the floor of the bathroom to prevent accidents such as slipping while bathing. In short, my relatively small kitchen has great utility value.Finally, I take pleasure in describing the bathrooms which I have enjoyed decorating. The master bedroom has been furnished with a chrome-plated bed that comes with side tables, a made-to-order-wardrobe that has an efficient storage system and a full length mirror to give me the pleasure of looking at myself from head to toe. I have used a range of fabrics from the Laura Ashley collection. The pale, muted blue flowery print blends well with the plain blue textured wallpaper. The bed sheets, the curtains and even the cushion covers are of the same Laura Ashley collection.The guestroom, however, makes use of bright yellow as its main hue. There are two single beds separated by a light yellow rug. The beds come with drawers for keeping clothes neat and tidy. The drawers can also be converted into a bed when the need arises.To conclude, I feel proud and happy that I was able to design and decorate my house so well without the expertise and help of professional house renovators. The emergence of my dream house readily gives me the utmost pleasure and satisfaction.

Essay topic: Talk about an ideal house

At first when I thought of purchasing a house, I wanted one that was neither too far nor too near a town. If it was too far, I may feel lonely and then, there was the question of transport. Finally, I chose an elevated, land enabling easy drainage and firm. The site is spacious allowing ground for the house and a decent big garden. I wanted an elegant look for the house I intended to build.The house has four rooms with a well-furnished kitchen and modern bathroom facilities. The living rooms are comfortable. The furniture has been chosen with great care. The walls have been painted with soft colors to match the curtains, the materials of which had been bought from the best textile manufacturing company. Each room is fitted with a radio so that one can enjoy programs from the bed. The drawing room is elegantly furnished with sofas, chairs and a central table. The walls are lined with built-in cupboards, a library to house well-chosen volumes by master novelists. There is a niche for the television and the room can be used for viewing programs. All the rooms are airy and air-conditioned.The kitchen is beautifully done up. It is fitted with electric grills and things can be stacked neatly away in specially designed cabinets. It is provided with modern gadgets for grinding, pulverizing or cutting.In front of the house there is an artificial pool with a fountain spray. One or two fish tanks are kept in the big porch to add the beauty of the place. There is a garage at the side of the house for my car, cattle and poultry. There I keep a few fowls of the high breed like the white leg horn, Black Monorca, and Rhode Island from which I get a supply of eggs and meat. I have two jersey cows in the shed which supply the milk for the family. In the backyard there are a few fruit bearing trees. On the margin of the house, there are some coconut trees. In front of the house there are certain bushes of croton and exotic plants. The well-kept lawn with luscious green grass is very pleasing to the eye. There is also a small playground for my children with a swing.I have a couple of chandeliers in the drawing room showing rainbow colored lights whenever light falls on them. I could specially mention the marble Buddha I got from Sian and a bronze Nataraja from India. There are a few selected pictures by masters in gilded frames.Thus I am surrounded by beauty and peace.

Essay topic: The house where I am living

My family consist of 4 people. Ther are my parents, my sister and me.We are living in a large house in a suburb of Ho Chi Minh City. The house is made of brick and covered with red tiles. It has 5 rooms including a living-room, 3 bedrooms and a kitchen. The living-room, which is rather large, is decorated with beautiful pictures on the walls. The bedrooms are nice; one is for my parents and the other two for my sister and me. The kitchen is tidy and well equipped with a gas cooker, a washing-machine and a refrigerator. Around the house is a large garden with many fruit-trees and flowers.I like this house very much. It is the place where I was born and grew up. It has given me good memories since my childhoood. I wish I would live in it forever.

Essay topic: Write an essay on: “There is no place like home”.

Home! Home! There is no place like home. This saying always makes a deep impression on my mind whenever I think of it.My home is the sweetest, the loveliest and the best place in the world. In spite of its shabbiness, I still prefer it to any beautiful places on the globe. I would sacrifice all the comforts and luxuries of a modern building in a distant place in exchange for the simple dwelling place, my sweet home!Fancy we are away from home for a long time. How can we forget the place where we were born and brought up in the tenderness and love of our beloved mother? Nothing cannot prevent us from recalling pleasant and cozy evenings spent by the fire-place during winter beside our dear ones. We are tied to our home by bonds of affection and love: our mother is always ready to accede to our wishes and look after our daily needs, and our father willing to sacrifice everything to make us happy and comfortable.All people, in any case, in any places or in whatever position they may be, once far from their homes, are expecting to return to their warm hearths. The very thought of home fills them with deep emotion and serene bliss. They are looking forward to enjoying the cozy atmosphere of their families, seeing their relatives, their friends and their playmates again. The famous sycamore in front of the house, the lake alive with fish and radiant with lotus flowers are closely associated with their early childhood.Uncle Ho, after many years of exile and imprisonment in China, after his release when reaching our boundary, picked up a piece of earth in his hand, kissed it and cried with joy. The sailors, sailing across the sea, foster bright hopes of returning to their sweet homes on land, the warriors fighting the enemies in the battlefield are equally attached to the bracing atmosphere of their homeland.In fact, a man, whatever his occupation may be, loves his hearth and home tenderly. It is his cradle, his nursery, his school and his paradise on earth.

Essay topic: Supposing you were the only survivor of a shipwreck and were washed up on a deserted island. What would you do there during two weeks?

On a cold evening of April our ship was sailing for Ireland. Suddenly a violent storm rose and overturned our ship. Fortunately I clang to a plank and was washed up on an island.It was pitch-dark. On reaching the island, I fumbled for a smooth place to lie down. Quite exhausted I slept for a long time. I woke up with a start when I was dazzled by glaring sunlight. How I felt hungry and thirsty! The island with its gorgeous landscape at dawn appeared before my eyes.I began to explore the island. It was an uninhabited island surrounded by gigantic trees. Yellow fruit dangling in the fresh morning breeze seduced my hunger. I tasted one. How sweet and delicious it was! I devoured greedily a lot of them then I lay down comfortably on a patch of soft grass. Around me were fragrance and twittering of birds. Pricking up my ears, I heard a stream babbling somewhere. I sprang up and cast a glance around. There, far away, on the right, a waterfall was cascading down the mountainside. I rushed toward it. Stooping down I swallowed gulps of water in raptures. In the afternoon when I was wandering around the island, I happened to find out a cave a hidden behind the dense foliage. It was convenient for me to turn it into lodging and bed for the night.Day in day out, nearly two weeks passed by. My food was mere fruit and some fish and lobster caught from the stream. Sometimes I tried to hunt some wild animals but in vain. Had I been equipped with necessary things, I would have enjoyed remaining here for food.One morning I caught sight of a boat on the horizon. I signaled and shouted out loudly. I was rescued but so far I have fostered the memories of a fairy land which I had once happened to discover!

Essay topic: Anatole France said: “Family is a very good school”. Explain this sentence and comment on it.

School is the place where the pupils’ parents entrust the teachers with the education and training of their children. School is the place where useful citizens have been formed for society. However, a French writer said: “Family is a very good school”. By adducing concrete proofs, let’s find out the meaning of it and try to appreciate its value.Family is a school. The role of the mother in the family is of utmost importance. She is both a mother and an educator. The child’s immaturity of mind has been deeply influenced by the mother’s lullabies and by the first lessons she has taught him since his childhood. Growing up beside his mother the child began to discover what was happening around him with his curious mind. So the mother must have a general knowledge in order that she can satisfy her child’s thirst for knowledge. From this point of view, family is the very base of the school education.Family is a good school. Family does not teach the child subject as school does but the influences of family upon the child’s mind are undeniable. It is in family, not in school that the child can learn good habits and customs together with mutual love and support. These lessons are much more practical than the abstract and theoretical ones taught in school.Therefore the above sentence offers us a valuable lesson about the importance of family to the education of children. It also justifies that the education which a child gets from his family is not less important than the knowledge he obtains at school. The above sentence is perfectly right in a country, which always pays close attention to the role of the family and regards family as a basic unit of society. But in the society where family is not considered as the foundation of society, this sentence has only a relative value.To sum up, school helps us train specialists while family forms good citizens who are willing to devote their talents and minds to their country and their fatherland.

Essay topic: Comment in this saying “Failure is the mother of success”

Many people easily feel disappointed whenever they fail in their business. Successive failures may lead them to pessimism and they keep on bewailing their lot. The following saying: “Failure is the mother of success” has been used to encourage these sorts of people.At first, “everything is difficult at the outset”. When we start implementing a certain scheme, although it is carefully planned in advance, we still encounter some obstacles or difficulties that may arise unexpectedly. For example, a farmer tried to sow a new kind of seeds. To his great disappointment, the new seeds did not produce him a good yield as he had expected whereas his neighbor farmer sowed the same seeds but he harvested a bumper crop. Our unfortunate farmer did not lose hope and was determined to investigate the causes of his failure: he tried to better his soil, fertilizing his rice-fields with mush nitrogen and finally he succeeded in collecting 5 tons of rice per hectare.If you lose one go, try another. The patience, persistence and will are important. Drawing experiences from previous failures, we changed tactics and strategies and finally we will succeed. Our success is due to our unflinching determination after bitter failures. Demosthenes, the greatest Athenian orator, before reaching the acme of his glory, had to suffer so much despair and failure. The audience did not pay much attention to his political speeches because of his weak voice. He resolved that he would get rid of this defect. Day after day, he went to the sea, shouting and roaring with deafening sounds of waves and in the end he acquired a convincing and sonorous voice as he had wished.The above saying is quite right if it is applied to the pupils’ lives. If we are weak at certain subjects, do not be disappointed. Be consistent in our study. We should learn more from our friends, our teachers and others and listen to their advice. Thus, in the long run, we can get over our defects and weakness.In conclusion, the saying: “Failure is the mother of success” can serve as a guide for those who show pessimism after their failures and always surrender themselves to obstacles and difficulties.

Essay topic: Computers have become increasingly important and popular. Could you describe some useful ways in which computers have so far contributed

The most wonderful invention of the machine age, the computer, has been used since 1946. Since its appearance, the computer has contributed to mankind many useful ways in every aspect.First of all, in the accounting domain: with lightning speed and perfect accuracy, the computer can do simple calculations such as: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division marvelously. A computer can work 500,000 times faster than a man can do with pencil and paper. Calculations which would have taken days become a matter of minutes with computers.Then in the study and research of scientists, historians and sociologists not only can the computer gather facts but it can also store them as fast as they are gathered and then can pour them out whenever they are needed. In this way, the computer is really a high-powered memory machine capable of answering all problems and questions.Next in the navigation and aviation scopes: with the computer, pilots and sailors can avoid all dangers on their itinerary. It helps them direct their flights and voyages from this city to another one, control airspeeds and altitudes when their planes land or take off. How could NASA solve all the problems of the space shuttles without its computers.Finally in the constructing and designing fields: besides gathering and storing information the computer can solve complicated problems that took man months to do. They have been used by building companies. From the architect’s original plan, the computers can derive new plans according to a new type of environment, the cost of building and so on…To sum up, we dare say that there is practically no limit to what computers can do and their contributions to our modern life are boundless.

Essay topic: You tell a foreigner about your beloved homeland

Our country has an S-shape, stretching from the South China Sea to Ca Mau cape with a surface of 320.000 square kilometers and a population of more than seventy millions. Most people live on agriculture. The Red River and the Mekong River deltas are the two rice-baskets of the whole country. Vietnam is holding the third place among the rice-exporting countries in the world.Our Vietnamese people, through many years living under the yoke of French colonialists, Japanese fascists and American Imperialists had to undergo great hardships and sufferings. But with an unyielding spirit and with the wise leadership of the Vietnamese Communist Party the Vietnamese people launched a long and courageous struggle against foreign invaders and finally succeeded in sweeping all of them out of the country.On April 30, 1975, we were able to restore our whole freedom and independence. The entire country has been reunified from North to South. The Dien Bien Phu Victory and the Great Victory of Spring 1975 are the most glorious feats of arms in the Vietnamese History.No sooner had peace been restored on our territory than we began to heal the wounds of the atrocious war. In our nation reconstruction, we have been helped wholeheartedly by our friends from five continents. We are always grateful to this precious help and contribution.Rich in natural resources and abundant in minerals, our beloved Vietnam with its industrious and creative people will be one of the wealthiest and most powerful countries in South East Asia in years to come.

Essay topic: Would you prefer to have an expensive and ostentatious wedding with lots of guests or a simple and quiet one?

Everyone has his own conception. These viewpoints are quite different from each other, especially in ceremonies and rites, for example, in a wedding ceremony.Last Sunday, one of my closest girlfriends invited me to her wedding. The bride was born of a middle-class family. Her parents are retired government officials. To satisfy their daughter’s wishes, they had to organize a pompous and expensive wedding. The wedding was prepared carefully: they had the house whitewashed and decorated, lanterns and gorgeous flowers were hung everywhere.On the wedding day, the bride wore a full-length pink dress, with a crown on her head just like a queen. A great number of guests were invited to the party. Delicious and rare main courses were served in the deafening sounds of rock music. Almost all guests drank so much whisky and brandy that they got as drunk as lords, and the wedding party lasted three days and three nights. It was rumored that her wedding party cost half of her parents’ fortune.As for me, I have a quite different conception of wedding. I prefer to have a very simple and quiet wedding party rather than an ostentatious and expensive one.Before my wedding, I myself will decorate the living-room in accordance with my taste. In my wedding ceremony, I will wear a traditional dress which represents chastity and purity. Only few friends and relatives will be invited to my simple wedding party. There will be no rock music and no other kinds of festivals.In summary, I conceive that the happiness of a newly-married couple cannot be found in an ostentatious and expensive wedding which only ruins their health and their parent’s fortune.

Essay topic: What science has done to make our lives easier and more comfortable?

Nowadays science has made great progress in every aspect. More and more wonderful machines invented by scientists have rendered a man’s life much easier and more comfortable.In fact, the century we are living in has been called the machine age. We feel the presence of science whenever we go. And the benefits it has brought to mankind are boundless.First, science has brought comfort to human mental life. The most wonderful invention of science is, in my opinion, the electronic computer. With lightening speed, an electronic computer can help us solve lots of thorny problems which took man quite a very long time to do with his brain.Second, science has made our material lives easier. It takes a housewife a few minutes to prepare breakfast if she has enough modern facilities. Eggs are cooking on the electric stove, bread is being toasted in an electric toaster and coffee is being made in an electric coffee maker. From the electric refrigerator she takes a can of orange juice and opens it with an electric can opener. Breakfast is ready in very short time.Third, science has brought about the shortening of space. Different means of communication and transportation have been increasingly invented and improved. We are no longer slaves to the universe as we used to be but masters of the whole air and sea areas by means of aeroplanes and steamships. In the future, we hope we will enjoy an interplanetary traveling by missiles. Telegraph, fax, radio, television are man’s victories over the obstacles of time and space.Fourth, science has contributed to the mutual understanding of mankind and the prosperity of commerce and trades once the distance between nations has been shortened. The world is getting smaller and smaller. Men all over the world regardless of their races, religious and traditions need to sit closely together, discussing international affairs for the sake of peace and welfare of the world.

Essay topic: What would be to your mind an ideal education system?

A country is weak or powerful, which depends on its education system. Realizing the important role of education in life, Ho Chi Minh, in one of his speeches on education, said: “For the sake of ten years’ benefits, plant trees; for the sake of one hundred years’ benefits, educate people.”An ideal education system must try to carry out the following aims.First, training human personality both mentally and physically is important. It is said that a sound mind is in a healthy body. The morality and the quality of a man must be the main concern of the Department of Education.Second, schools must be connected closely with families and society. Schools must always encourage pupils’ families to cooperate in educating their children.Third, the practical side of education must be emphasized. An ideal education system must not be entirely theoretical; on the contrary, theory must be linked up with practice. Besides the cultivation of knowledge for young generations, ideal education must train them to have great capacity and skills so that they are ready to make steady progress in life.Fourth, society is more and more developed; therefore, textbooks and curriculums must be often supplemented in accordance with present and future needs.Fifth, training and tempering a passionate love for one’s country in every citizen’s heart, ready to serve their country in peacetime and to fight courageously to protect their fatherland in wartime. The examples of sacrifice of our heroes in the past as well as in the present must be introduced through textbooks in elementary schools.Sixth, training and forming educators, teachers and professors of good conduct and high quality, teaching and educating students and pupils to hold their teachers in the greatest veneration and respect. Furthering the traditions to respect teachers and esteem morality highly in every class of people.To sum up, an ideal education is the nucleus of an ideal society.

Essay topic: “He alone can command who knows how to obey”. Explain this sentence.

The success of a society depends on the coordination between the various components which make up that society. This involves some command from some which has to be carried by some or many. As the saying goes no man is an island, nor is everyone having the same talent in the same way. It is the nature’s order, a few could think and plan while others must execute. Then society can be stable and function for long.It is a question of leadership. There are very few leaders but most of them are developed. Accidents find them in positions where they could develop into leader. But those positions they should learn from others until in their own day they could bloom in to leaders.Great men of industry, great doctors and great lawyers have come up the hard way. Usually they all apprenticed to a big one from whom they learn the art of their respective trade. They may have the basic knowledge and they may know all the fundamentals but these do not make them leaders. They have to work under a senior and gradually they evolve.This apprenticeship calls for humility, hard work, sustained interest and above all obedience. Obedience is to obey. So the apprentice has to obey his master. Juniors under as lawyers plod long hours so that they can master the intricacies of law. Young doctors have to sweat and labor in an operation theatre such that they may succeed as soon as they wear the uniforms, and for them obedience is the first and the last word. There is no profession like that of a soldier where unquestioned and unstinted obedience is called for. The great generals then and now ought to have learned the value of obedience the harder way. Leadership needs discipline and dedication.These people know the value of obedience. They know how thing may go wrong if obedience is lacking. It was said of a business magnate that he insisted on all those who worked under him to be punctual. If anyone was late he used to fine them. If he himself was not punctual, he would pay the fine from his pocket and thus he was able to set an example.It is clear from the above that those who would command must know how to obey before they can expect others to obey.

Essay topic: Describe a visit you have made to a factory and show what benefits you have derived from the visit.

Last week, under our form-teacher’s guidance we visited the Bicycle Factory.On our arrival at the factory, we were warmly greeted by the director who gave us some information about the factory.It is a long, low building with different workshops. There are 500 workers in the factory. Many of them live in the factory grounds but many others live in the nearby towns or villages and go to work by bus everyday.When we entered the first workshop, the workers, in their overalls, were cutting steel tubes with hacksaws. It was very noisy here but the workers had got used to the noise.The newly-cut steel tubes were brought to the next workshop where they were joined together into frames by soldering irons. Flashes of red and blue light sent out from soldering irons dazzled our eyes. The workers were absorbed in their work. Drops of sweat were rolling on their cheeks and their overalls were soaked with sweat. We went to the next workshop. The newly joined frames were brought there to be polished before they were painted. The final process of production was to assemble accessories together before the bicycles were put on the market.The visit of the Bicycle Factory gave us a precious lesson: the existence of a society depends largely on the working class. The workers themselves create properly and material comforts for society with the sweat of their brow. And on impulse, we thought: “If our government hadn’t imported such a large number of motorbikes and if all people had used bicycles as their means of transport, the environment wouldn’t have been so seriously polluted”.

Essay topic: Describe a bridge you know well

Whoever has been to Hue ancient city will always admire the gracefulness of Trang Tien Bridge.Built a long time ago, Trang Tien Bridge was made of steel and concrete and supported by huge underwater columns which extend to a depth of over 150 meters under the water. It is composed of 12 spans joining the left bank to the right bank of the Perfume River. From far away it looks like white arches emerging from the blue skyline.On bright moonlit nights, standing on the bridge you can see myrisds of vacillating stars reflecting on the clear and blue waters. How cool and relaxed you feel at that time! The light evening breeze rising from the river caresses your skin and fills your lungs with soft fragrance. All around you are coolness and quietness. In the stillness of the long night you can hear the little waves lapping against the sampans gliding gently below. Now and again a sweet melodious chant rises from somewhere and then gradually vanishes in the quiet atmosphere.During the day, however, the sceneries are livelier. Cars, motorbikes and bicycles are streaming towards the other side of the river. Groups of schoolgirls, dressed in white, with conical palm hats on their heads are gracefully walking over the bridge to their Dong Khanh School, talking and laughing merrily. The flaps of their white traditional dress or ao dai are fluttering in the fresh morning breeze just like butterflies’ wings.Tourist will foster sweet recollections of this famous bridge forever once they have visited this Old Capital City.

Essay topic: The world does not progress, it merely changes. Do you agree this view?

At first hearing, this seems a strange, almost an absurd saying. What! No progress? Why, compare the world today with what it was in antiquity, in the middle Ages, or even only two hundred years ago. There is no comparison. Have we not now inventions and conveniences that were never dreamt of two centuries ago? What about our railway and steam-driven machinery, our steamships and submarines, our aeroplanes, our electric light and power, our telegraph, telephone, radio and broadcasting, our aseptic surgery and advanced medical science, our other scientific discoveries and inventions, and hundreds of other signs of progress? Two hundred years ago these things were unknown. Had not the world progressed far beyond the wildest dreams possible to our ancestors?No doubt all this, and more, is true. But this does not disprove this saying. The world has certainly progressed in knowledge; but has it progressed in wisdom? We know far more than our forefathers did; but do we use greater knowledge to any wiser ends? That is to be doubted. As Tenyson said, “Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers.”Look at the world as it is today. It is a hundred years since Tennyson dreamt of “The Parliament of Man, the Federation of the World”. It is still only a dream. Mankind has not had the wisdom to learn the elementary lesson of cooperation on a world scale. Mankind is still divided up into warring tribes, like their barbarian ancestors. The spirit of a narrow nationalism still divides men, and makes anything like a common economic and political system impossible.Modern nations are still on much the same low level as their barbarian predecessors in their relations with one another. Fearing and distrusting one another, they lock up a huge amount of their productive wealth in armaments, to their own impoverishment. They stand armed to the teeth, ready to destroy one another and their common civilization with the devilish weapons which their science has placed in their hands. There is change, certainly. In old days, men killed each other with bows and arrows, swords and spears; now they do it with high explosive bombs and poison gas. But the spirit of envy, greed, hate and pride is just the same. Only change, no progress. As one statesman said recently, we live in a world qualifying for bedlam.Progress is defined as “advancement towards a higher and better state”. Has our boasted advance in knowledge made the world either wiser or morally better than it was centuries ago?

Essay topic: A shopping day

We live in the suburb of HCM city. Twice a week my mother and I usually take a bus to HCM city to do some shopping.Yesterday was my mother’s off-day. Early in the morning we took a bus to town. We were in town just after seven and we had the whole morning for shopping.First, we went to the ready-made clothes department. My mother bought two white shirts for my father, a pair of blue jeans for my brother. I chose a pink woolen sweater. I liked it very much because it perfectly suited my complexion. At this department prices were moderate and we did not need to bargain. Before leaving, my mother bought herself two pairs of gloves.Next, we went straight to the shoe department. The shop-assistant greeted us warmly. He showed us pairs of shoes of really good quality leather. Leather shoes and sandals of various sizes and colors were on sale. The store was crowded with customers. They were either looking at the shoes or buying them. We both chose fashionable pairs of shoes and left.It was nearly eleven o’clock. We called at a little cafĂ© by the street-side to have lunch. After lunch we went to the park nearby. We took a rest on the bench in the shade of tall trees, waiting for the shops to be open again in the afternoon.At 2:00 p.m. we returned to the shopping center. We went to the Chinaware department. My mother needed a dozen of dishes and bowls. Enameled chinaware of different beautiful patterns attracted housewives’ attention.Finally, before returning home, we went to the stationer’s. My mother bought lots of stationery: ink, pens, ball-point pens and writing pad. On the way to the bus station we called at the fast food department to get some ready-cooked food for the family when we got home.Returning home, I felt quite tired but how interesting a shopping day it was!e

Essay topic: Women should be restricted to work connected with the home and children. They should not engage in politics, commerce or industries. Do y

The given statement might have been correct long ago, perhaps till the end of the last century. In so far as the family was the unit and the bringing forth and rearing of children rested on the women’s shoulder, her place was always relegated to the home. She played many roles, none of them demanding. She was the housewife, mother, manager of the household and the first educator of children. Her minor role as a knitting woman or a washer-woman was recognized but not mentioned.Those days are gone, and nobody who is educated and civilized looks upon woman as a doll to be kept at home at the will and pleasure of men folk. Of course there are exceptions in certain societies where the in-laws play a dominating role. With the education of women and the change in economic status, women are enjoying a lot of freedom. There are many up and coming women in the world in recent times. Women are in politics today and some have gone to become prime ministers.There has been strong resentment among the women, about the way they have been treated. There is the women’s liberation movement called Lib Women. One of their major platforms is equality of status, equal pay for equal work, and the security.Some old societies still treat women as chattels who could easily disposed of. In very primitive societies even today women are treated as a commodity which could be bought and sold, and even loans are raised on the security of women. These are far and few between. At the other end of the scale some women want complete freedom to live as they please. They want to have freedom of sex and do not want to be bound by wedlock. This is only extreme view and not so common even among those who vociferously cry for women’s freedom.Women have all ling been treated as a weaker sex. The connotation changes from person to person. Physically of course they are not hardy as men but that does not mean they do not have a strong heart. In fact, they are stronger than men in certain aspects in that they are able to stand physical hardships. In their make up they are equipped for certain nature’s ordeals which men are not subjected to. Whether they like it or not, generally women have more to do with children especially in their infancy and early childhood. This makes women distinctly different from men; their being soft and kind need not be taken for their weakness. If they appear weak sometimes, it is to maintain the dignity of family life, so that children do not become a bad copy of their mother. Motherhood is so sacred that trying to tamper with it in the name of the lib movement would make society wild and disorganized.Women’s finger of accusation in the matter of employment and security is correct. There are jobs and jobs, but only a few of them are really suited for women. Take for instance, mining, lumbering and fishing. These are definitely men’s areas. But when women can be employed, let them have their chance. Where they are employed, they have definitely proved better than men.What makes women appear in bondage is the tradition and culture. Man is the only animal who has got the institution of marriage. Marriage is not for simply the propagation of life but its main aim is the preservation of stock, safety of children and their upbringing. Marriage is not a contract which can be dissolved at one’s whim and fancy. Unless it is looked upon as a bond of love for life, children will suffer first and society ultimately. Some of the Western societies are paying the price heavily for their free notions of marriage.Men themselves are not so free. Wherever they work they find opposition, injustice and exploitation. The mental strain which they hear is heavy, which women at home are spared from.Under the present laws of the world, no nation bars employment to women in the name of sex. Nowadays we find women in many walks of life which were once the preserve of men.

Essay topic: Commerce as a means of spreading civilization. Discuss.

There are several ways in which civilization has been carried from one country to another, and so spread all over the world. One method has been conquest; when a civilized nation, like the ancient Romans, has subdued a barbarous race and introduced the arts of civilization among them. Another has been due to the desire to establish some particular religion in a foreign land, which has led zealous missionaries of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam to penetrate, at the risk of their lives, into savage countries. Such religious missionaries have brought not only their religion, but also the civilization of their own countries, to uncivilized people. But one of the most potent factors in the spread of civilization has been commerce.In ancient times, Egyptian traders probably brought civilization to Crete and the Aegean Islands, where a high form of civilization flourished 2000 years before Christ. Probably trade, through the Phoenicians, carried that civilization to Greece, and to all lands round the Mediterranean Sea. It was not only Roman arms, but also Roman commerce, that civilized many nations under Roman sway; and later, it was not only the military power, but also the commerce, of the Arabs, that brought Eastern civilization to many land, and to Europe.In more modern times, it was trade that led the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English to India and the East. The English came at first to India simply as traders, and it was their East India Company that introduced Western civilization into India, Burma, Ceylon and the East Indies.The opening up of Africa in the 19th century was due mainly to these forces: missionary effort represented by David Livingstone; exploration, represented by Henry Stanley; and commerce, represented by merchants who went to Africa to make money by trading with the natives. An entrance for Western civilization into Japan, also, was first found by commerce.Civilization, whether it was a Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Arabic, or modern European, has no doubt been a blessing to the savage and backward races it has reached. But it often brought a curse with it, when it was introduced to savages, the vices as well as the depraved ways of life and material civilization to the more highly cultured races. And this is the chief evil connected with the spread of civilization by commerce; for traders do not act from any philanthropic motive, but go to foreign lands simply to make money.This is why the spread of civilization by missionary effort, or even in some cases by conquest, has been better than the spread of civilization by trade. Zealous missionaries whether of Buddhism, Christianity, have had a more truly civilizing effort on savage races than traders. And when the ancient Romans subdued a barbarous race, and admitted them to Roman citizenship, they probably did them less harm than some unscrupulous traders would have done.

Essay topic: What is food? And give its importance.

Man must eat in order to live; therefore, one of the most important problems man has is that of always being certain that he will have enough to eat when he needs it.At first, man did not have any way to control his food supply. For his food he uses the plants and animals as he found them. He ate roots, seeds, berries, eggs, fruits, honey, and the meat of animals. Probably the food were not cooked or prepared in any special way.Even in small societies special knowledge was necessary for hunting and fishing, for preparing the food, and for preserving food for use at a later time.As we have said, at first man had no way to control his food supply. When he had killed all the animals in one place and all the natural foods had been used, he had to move to another region to find new sources of food. If there was no rain, or if the weather was too hot or too cold, plants would not grow and man had little or no food. However, man gradually learned ways to grow plants and raise animals himself. From that time on, he was not so dependent on natural conditions and did not have to worry so much about always having enough food.The kinds of plants which are raised by men are different in each geographical or climatic region. In the colder regions, very few plants can be grown; in the warmer parts of the world, great varieties of plants are found, but there is still some specialization in particular kinds of plants. For example, in Asia, rice is the most important crop. In the New World, the major grain is corn (or maize). In Europe and North Africa, wheat, oats, and barley are grown. In the tropical regions of the world, many kinds of fruit grow naturally or are raised by men.To a certain extent, the kinds of animals raised by man were also determined by climate and geography, or simply by the kinds of animals available in one particular area. For example, cows, sheep, and goats were found naturally only in particular areas of the world, and only the people living in those areas were able to use those particular animals for food or for other purposes. Cows, sheep, and goats are now common in all parts of the world. As man has learned more about plants and animals, the production of food has become a more technical and specialized process. However, there are still many areas of the world where plants and animals are raised in such the same ways as were used thousands of years ago.