Bruce Goff's Bavinger House

Introduction: Bruce Goff¡¦s working career spanned sixty-six years, from 1916, when he began working in an architect¡¦s office, until his death in 1982. During that time he received more than 450 commissions for buildings and related designs, resulting in more than 500 proposals of which at least 147 were realized. Bruce Goff occupied a unique place in American architecture. His buildings looked like those of no other architect. His idiosyncratic designs juxtaposed shapes in unexpected but delightful combinations. His reliance on unusual materials resulted in strange, sometimes futuristic combinations of colors and textures. His interior designs were resolutely unconventional and were intended to provide both physical comfort and spiritual sustenance. His goal was to design for the ¡¥continuous present¡¦ without referring specifically to the past, present, or future. Working on this ideal plane, Goff continually found new and surprising ways to satisfy the functional demands of a project. The distinctiveness of Goff's designs could be ascribed in large part to his determination not to be bound by previous approaches to architecture, to his total commitment to his clients' desires, and to his ceaseless search for inspiration in music, painting, and literature. Unlike many of his fellow architects, Bruce Goff did not seek to provide historians with a cohesive body of work in any conventional fashion. Goff worked his entire life to free architecture from the indolent idioms of the past and to show by his own example that there were many extraordinary possibilities for innovation in the world. No two of his buildings looked the same, and this seemed to have been his goal; his maxim of ¡¥beginning again and again¡¦ did not lend itself to the inbred refinement of style practiced by most of his contemporaries. In describing his approach to architecture, he said, ¡§Each time we do a building it should be the first and the last. We should begin again and again, because all problems are different from each other; even if they may seem similar.¡¨ Goff¡¦s discontinuity of personal style was simply reflection of the multiplicity of client style. Goff¡¦s distinctive organic style: Almost from the first publications of Bruce Goff's architectural work in the various media there had been an association made between Goff's designs and those of Frank Lloyd Wright---critics pointed out the similarity of design philosophies as well as the similarities found between some of the works of each architect. During the presentation in a conference entitled ¡¥An American Architecture: Its Roots, Growth and Horizons¡¦, Goff discussed the many influences on his 'style' of architecture and in particular the influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on his work: I think he (Frank Lloyd Wright) helped more than any other single thing in my life to make me realize that there was a great deal of freedom (in architectural design) once you understood more about organic architecture and develop your own feeling about it in your own way¡K.¡¨ Frank Lloyd Wright introduced the word ¡¥organic¡¦ into his philosophy of architecture as early as 1908. His organic architecture was to eliminate ¡¥box¡¦ which was a favorite form in International Style and to liberate the human spirit in the building and related it to its environment. It was also an extension of the teachings of his mentor Louis Sullivan whose slogan ¡¥form follows function¡¦ became the mantra of modern architecture. Wright changed this phrase to ¡¥form an function are one,¡¦ using nature as the best example of this integration. Wright's organic architecture took on a new meaning. It was not a style of imitation, because he did not claim to be building forms which were representative of nature. Instead organic architecture was a reinterpretation of nature's principles as they had been filtered through the intelligent minds of men and women who could then build forms which were more natural than nature itself. Organic architecture was definitely a new sense of shelter for humane life. He wrote: ¡§All buildings built should serve the liberation of mankind, liberating the lives of individuals. What amazing beauty would be ours if man's spirit, thus organic, should learn to characterize this new free life of ours in America as natural.¡¨ Wright's philosophy of organic architecture was not to be confused with his singular style. That style was unique, his personal form of expression. He often repeated his hope that other architects and students would not imitate him but develop their own individuality. The principles of organic architecture, he believed, were not related to any particular style but were adaptable to all architectural solutions: ¡§Given similar conditions, similar tools, similar people, similar language, I believe architects will, with proper regard for the organic nature of the thing produced arrive at greatly varied results; buildings sufficiently harmonious with each other and more and more so with great individuality.¡¨ Bruce Goff accepted Wright's definition, but he went his own way, expanded it to include the life-experience of both architect and client as factors. It was this that made his work so visually diverse and so responsive to the building user. Bruce Goff might be regard as an organic architect to the extent that his designs emerge directly from considerations of function and site, client and climate. More importantly, Goff presumed to draw on the organic nature of life as revealed by the natural world and by man¡¦s perception of it in relation to his understanding of himself. His own definition of organic architecture as ¡¥a concept which grows from within outward through the natural use of materials--directed and ordered by the creative spirit--so that the form is one with function.¡¦ Bavinger house, near Norman, showed Goff assimilated the influence of Wright. It was designed by Goff in 1950 and largely owner-built over a period of four years 1951-1955. Eugene Bavinger and his wife found their conventional house restricting; they particularly disliked the closed feeling of separate rooms and the lack of connection between house and surroundings. They asked Goff for more open, continuous space in a new house, which would not only provide for themselves and their two sons, but which also would accommodate their horticultural hobby. According to their needs, Goff intended to design a house that would perfectly suit their character. Goff synthesized the Gillis project's spiral, the Leidig project's water garden, and the Blakely project's suspended elements into a single work. He attempted to integrate the spaces into a coherent whole: a marriage between the site and the structure. Goff selected a natural clearing beside a shallow ravine as the site for the house, and planned the excavation of the adjoining hill to maintain a close proximity between the lower levels of the house and the stream below. Areas of rustic stone exposed in the excavation with additional rustic stone from adjacent areas formed portions of the floor and enclosing wall. The enclosing wall was a continuous logarithmic spiral 96 feet long which rose from a height of six feet at its outer point to a height of over 50 feet at the center. Rising from the center of the spiral was a steel mast that supported an array of cables that held the spiraling roof in suspension. Inside, the main floor on several levels was treated as an interior garden with large areas given over to plants and irregularly shaped pools. Except for a dining area and a kitchen tucked in the center of the spiral, rooms were not on this level at all, but suspended above it, within the continuous spiral enclosure. Each room was circular in shape and hung from thin steel rods welded to a mast at the very center of the spiral. In Goff's plan these rooms were arranged as a regular spiral, and in elevation they stepped up like a circular stair. The resulting played between the two spirals created an interior volume of unparalleled richness and complexity, one further enhanced by an equally complex system of suspended storage cylinders, by a continuous skylight that separated the suspended roof from the outer stone wall, and by a suspension bridge that linked an upper level of the house to a garden beyond an adjacent stream. Bavinger house was Goff's most forceful exploration of the indeterminate manner, clearly differentiating the general, loosely defined volume from the geometric units it contained. Describing the house, Goff stressed that from no single vantage point could its interior be seen completely, nor its spatial system immediately comprehended. He believed that one of the most significant changes in the concept of space was due to people¡¦s increased desire to have the space inside and outside more continuous, more flexible, more dynamic, and more active. He said: ¡§...the entire interior is a continuous flow of space wherein neither walls nor floor and ceiling are parallel. Here, more completely than in any other house of this time, is an architectural expression of the way of life of the client, a sense of living in space three-dimensionally with furniture integral as part of the house itself, and close integration with nature indoors and out.¡¨ In relation to the body of Golf's work, the Bavinger house was one of his most organic and least geometrical. It had the quality of a tree house---hidden and private, materially inventive and resourceful, gravity defying and lawless. Conventional, academic architectural categories failed adequately to define it, yet it was the product of a genuinely American attitude of novelty, humor, daring, and rugged individualism. In 1987, the American Institute of Architects awarded it their Twenty-Five Year Award in recognition of its importance to American architecture. In its statement on the Bavinger House, the AIA panel wrote, ¡§it spirals joyously into the Oklahoma sky, cut loose from the earth by a mind as free as the prairie landscape, a celebration of the spirit of man and nature united in architecture.¡¨ Bavinger House combined almost all of the innovations Goff developed in his lifetime, including open planning, the separation and floating (or suspending) of functional elements, geometric innovation, and the combining of rustic masonry with crystalline elements. There was a great contrast in the Bavinger house between competing elements that were grounded (stone and water) and elements that were floated (suspended roof, spiral stair, room-pods, and closet elements). Goff attempted to play these competing structural elements against one another to suggest elements in nature: Earth/Water/Fire/Air. Goff¡¦s individualistic approach: Bruce Goff¡¦s individualistic character might be an underlying deprecation about the superficiality of fashion and conformity. When he was asked to give comment about contemporary architecture, he said that ¡¥commonism¡¦ in architecture was the big danger, the general notion that architects could achieve harmony through conformity was ridiculous, and he hated to see anything that he liked would become the rule. His artistic temperament made his works difficult to be categorized by architectural writers. The diversity of his works made him a candidate for many categories. His individualistic character was showed very earlier in his life. Goff had the opportunity to pursue a formal academic training, however, he decided not to go after he wrote to Wright to ask his advice. Wright sent a terse note: ¡§If you want to lose Bruce Goff go to school.¡¨ Moreover, he refused Wright¡¦s offer to become his chief assistant. Goff said: ¡§ Mr. Wright, you honor me ... therefore I feel I should tell you the real reason why I believe I should not accept your offer¡K.I have known people who have worked with you in the Oak Park days and since, and they all seem to fall into two categories; one group thinks you have ruined their lives ... that you have stolen their ideas and that you are a devil. The other believes that you are a God who can do no wrong and that their lives are useless unless sacrificed for you. I don't want to think of you in either of these ways ... nor can I ever be a disciple. I need to be away from you far enough so that I can get the proper perspective.¡¨ Goff had worried about style as so many people were because he thought his works could not reflect any kind of style, fortunately, he finally comforted himself by thinking that style should come along with each thing and each thing should become its own style. Goff did not condition his choice of solution by any desire to achieve stylistic consistency with his other work. Moreover, he did not believe in the Platonic ideal of a single, perfect solution, but rather believed that for any architectural problem a variety of approaches could be taken, and he acknowledged that no matter how powerfully specific conditions shaped a particular solution, personal choice is present in some degree. He said: ¡§...there is never just one solution. The creative artist works intuitively and instinctively with the one he feels best with: it is a matter of choice from among many possible solutions. I doubt...if there is just one answer or solution...I know that there are limitless possibilities in any combination of these circumstances (of a problem) which must be taken into account during the growth of any idea. There is not just one and only one way to do anything.¡¨ And he also said: ¡§... Artists who attempt to create a ¡¥manner¡¦ or ¡¥style¡¦ by endless variations on a theme for the sake of perfection'' usually have only one song to sing. They attempt to establish trademarks by which they may be easily recognized so their work will be commercially salable. We should have learned long ago that each thing we do should become its own style.¡¨ Despite the impact of other architects on the rest of the world, Goff had retained his highly individual approach, creating personal designs for each of his clients. Goff¡¦s own starting point for a an architect/ client relationship was probably sparked by the Wright¡¦s concept that organic architecture would provides homes as different as their owners. Although Wright formulated this concept, he only rarely realized this intention toward the end of his life. The architect who had developed this idea most strongly is Bruce Goff. The difference between these two great masters of organic architecture seems very clear at this point: Wright created a style with countless permutations and combinations, and designed for each client within that framework; while Goff had created countless styles each to suit a specific client. Thus, it was no doubt that Goff successfully used his own distinctive organic idea in designing Bavinger house so that it would reflect the individuality of owner while retained harmony with surrounding. As Goff said: ¡§Buildings are different doesn't mean there will be chaos. In nature you see different kinds of things together: you see rocks that are not like trees, and you see trees that are not like water, and you have water that isn't like flowers, and all sorts of things, and they all seem to get along together, don't they! I think you will find in nature that things harmonize no matter how different they are, because each thing is honest itself and has integrity and a discipline in its design and its function, and no matter how much they might fight each other physically, they still are in overall harmony. It is always everlasting and ever changing. If we could only understand this in our cities and our buildings and our relations with each other, I think we would all be happier and function much better as human beings.¡¨ Bavinger house was an example to demonstrated Goff¡¦s architecture became the free solution of individual problems, and not the vehicle of fashion or a medium for expressing his own personality. He believed that architecture must fight for the individuality and the uniqueness of every human being. His individualistic belief was inspired by Erte¡¦s philosophy---designing clothes which were reflections of the client¡¦s personality rather than the designer¡¦s---could also be applied to the creation of houses. Goff felt it would be unjust to ever inflict his own style on individual clients, believing instead that the personality of each client should be the overriding influence. He didn¡¦t think ¡¥client¡¦ was a restrictive component in design process. He said: ¡§The architect must be flexible in his consideration of the client's feelings about materials, colors, space, and so forth. He should work with these rather than try to impose his own preferences upon a building.¡¨ Goff¡¦s continuous present: Bavinger house illustrated what Goff called the continuous present, a quality synonymous with the theme of indeterminacy. Goff first used the term in 1948 to explain an approach to architectural design. He described the continuous present as something resulting form unconventional system of composition, one without specific beginning or end and without the usual processional hierarchies. It denoted a composition that could only be comprehended with time, and never understood in one glance. Bavinger house met these criteria. And because it followed no simple pattern of composition and provided no set patterns for use or movement, it presented a constantly changing series of images to the inhabitant. These features enlarged its meaning in Goff¡¦s mind, for he felt the qualities of changeability and the indefinite partly reflect our own time and merit architectural expression. Goff said: ¡§We have more and more the feeling that each thing we do, each work of art we do, whatever it is, is not really something that has a beginning or an ending. It is something that is continuing. We are beginning to understand more and more that change is necessary, always. As one of my students said, Stop moving and you are dead. You have to keep changing. Change does not necessarily mean progress, as we often like to think. Change is a necessary thing to keep happening, to keep things vital and alive. So if we stop to think about it, even if we start a composition, or building, or piece of music, or whatever we are doing, you might say, we are tuning in instead of starting, because it has taken us all our lives, and many other people's lives before us, to be part of a continuing thing, before we are able to continue through into this composition. So we really don't start it when we start the composition; we don't really begin then, we begin again and again, as Gertrude Stein says. We have to think of it as something continuous and something growing; something becoming, always becoming.¡¨ Goff believed that the sense of surprise and mystery was essential to the continuous present. Thus, he attempted to produce a sense of surprise and mystery in Bavinger house so that the building seemed more interesting and led to a greater level of satisfaction for the occupants. One was initially surprised by what seemed unusual, and then became aware of qualities which were not easily comprehended and which produced a sense of mystery. Goff said: ¡§It is natural that a work of art surprises us, partly because it is rare...Surprise engages our attention, whether it pleases or repulses us; but this is not enough. Something is needed to sustain our interest, if the work is to be meaningful to us. We call this quality 'mystery' which enables the work of art to hold our interest. If it has this and is necessarily the creation of genius, it is personal and impersonal, timely and timeless.¡¨ Goff believed that our present culture was partly characterized by its very changeability, and he reasoned that unusual and unexpected effects in architecture could express this fact. Qualities of mystery and surprise generated by the unusual and unexpected effects thus became tied to the concept of change. As Goff wrote in 1953: ¡§Instead of being agitated by this eternal change, we should rejoice in it, knowing that after the surprise or shock of the unfamiliar has been assimilated and digested, there will always remain the quality of Mystery in our genuine Modern Art so that it too may become Classical and Modern for all time.¡¨ In 1962, he expanded this statement: ¡§Change is part of a scheme of time thought of as the continuous present and, no matter how excellent established things may seem to be, creative artists are always restless and forever seeking new expressions.... Change brings with it the unexpected and it is this quality of surprise which engages our attention in a work of art; but since we cannot continue to be surprised by the same thing, the quality of mystery becomes necessary to sustain our interest. Mystery, however, defies analysis no matter how well we come to know a work possessing it; such a work, like Nature, never gives up its secrets.¡¨ Bavinger House demonstrated the flexibility of architectural change as life-style change. Goff attempted to think of his clients as continuing the design of the building; the actual life that went on in it complemented the design. Its form had resulted from this growing process and it was in perfect harmony with its environments and the lives within. This architectural growth, carefully disciplined by Goff, was truly organic. In describing Bavinger house, he said: ¡§The Bavinger have their house which is neither old or new so far as architectural fashion is concerned, but which is timeless. They continue to be of continuing with neither beginning nor ending. The house, unlike other house, will probably never be ¡¥complete¡¦ because it is intended to keep growing, in a state of flux, with its occupants and I hope it will continue to be inspiring and beautiful to them. The Architect did not start with a preconceived notion of the shape or form of the house. It resulted thus as a discipline of all organic elements found and growing in freedom. The Architect was the medium; He wishes to express his appreciation to the clients and all others who have helped to make, what could has been only a dream, a reality.¡¨ Bavinger house represented Goff¡¦s idea that continuous space could be symbolic of continuous life. As with Wright's concept of organic architecture, specific architectural manifestations could be elusive and unpredictable. Goff said: ¡§The Bavinger house, earth-bound as it is, is a primitive example of the continuity of space-for-living, is not a ¡¥back-to-nature¡¦ concept of living space, It is a living with nature today and every day (in) space, again as part of our continuous present.¡¨ Innovative ideas in form, in material, and in ornamentation: Bavinger house demonstrated Goff¡¦s innovative ideas in form, in material and in ornamentation. In his pursuit of organic architecture, Goff felt that ¡¥form¡¦ should be come naturally, not come from particular style. Therefore, he found ¡¥box¡¦, prevailing in International Style, was restrictive. Goff said that, ¡§We are not satisfied anymore with a box, no matter how the box looks.¡¨ Bavinger house showed how Goff made a stand against an overwhelmingly orthogonal, rectilinear architecture and incorporated circles, spirals and asymmetrical fan-shaped into its form. It was evident that Goff rejected the right angle and avoided traditional historical forms. Goff¡¦s advocacy of unusual and even free form shapes was in opposition to the beliefs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright consistently employed the basic square, triangular, and circular modules in design. Goff even expanded the Wright¡¦s concept of space and form as one. Goff said: ¡§Geometry, I think, doesn't mean necessarily to stick to the rigid forms that we usually associate with geometry. I think that we can conceive of space and of forms as one: I hear Mr. Wright quoting from Lao-tze, ¡§The reality of the building is the space within it,¡¨ but I don't think that is entirely true. I think that is certainly an integral part of it, but there is more to it than just the space within: there is the space without it, and there is the design itself--the material and the structure of the design itself. I believe that geometry is naturally involved in all of these thinking processes. The void and the volume, the negative and the positive, all the parts that go to make up the complete design should be in this.¡¨ Although his desire for free form often led to complicated solutions, he accepted and even sought such complication, believing it could enhance the individual character of the building. Goff said: ¡§Simplicity is considered by some a virtue; but it may only disguise the absence of anything of importance. Complexity is sometimes considered confusing; when in reality this is only a matter of first appearance...with understanding, that which seems 'complex' may become simple, and that which seems 'simple' may become complex.¡¨ In order to create an effect for Bavinger house, Goff employed certain flexibility in regard to materials. Bavinger house demonstrated Goff¡¦s ability to use common materials in an uncommon way. In Wright¡¦s concept, organic architecture involved a respect for the properties of the materials that materials were not forced into shapes against their inherent nature. Goff accepted this concept and expanded it to the idea that we should not use materials for material¡¦s sake, we should use materials in ways that they would look fresh. He concluded that each material had possibilities of use peculiar to its own nature. Goff said: ¡§We want a brick to be a brick and a board to be a board and a cement block to be a block and all that stuff. Sure we do, but that isn't enough. It has to be a lot more than that if it is going to be architecture, because we would expect that in just a good building. That would be part of being a good building, but the truth would be more than that, wouldn't it! The honest use of the material might stop with that: you could use brick honestly, or you could force it to a way that it wouldn't be an honest use of brick. To arrive at truth through honesty, then, I think you would have to have a little more than that. You would have to have something that would transcend the nature of the materials. It would have to have the nature of the material, but it would have to go way beyond it as it does in the finest architecture.¡¨ Ornamentation was generally accepted as a desirable component of architecture from earliest civilization until the end of the First World War. Diverse forces made the building of the 20th century devoid of ornament. Primary among these forces what Reyner Banham had called the ¡¥first machine age¡¦. In architecture, functionalism prevailed that ¡¥all that was not essential was eliminated¡¦. Another force against ornament was the socio-political ideal of mass housing. Ornamentation was thought to represent bourgeois taste and certainly did not fit in with the style appropriate to industrial processes. The demise of ornamentation was also influenced by several major architects of the early 20th century. Prominent among these was Adolf Loos whose article ¡¥Ornament and Crime¡¦ argued against continuing with decorative styles. There he wrote: ¡§the path of culture is the path away from ornamentation toward the elimination of ornament¡¦, and later ¡¥when it finally became my lot to build a house¡K. I looked at the old buildings, and saw how they emancipated themselves from ornamentation.¡¨ His philosophy reinforced William Morris¡¦s statement of 1882 that ¡§ the decorative arts have got to die¡K. before they can be born again¡¨ , Loos undoubtedly contributed to the International Style¡Xlack of ornament. Despite these diverse forces in architecture, Goff had developed an unsurpassed desire to apply ornamentation into his design. When he designed Bavinger house, he inclined to regard a whole building as an ornament rather to think of spots or ornament. Bavinger house, contrasted with the typical simplicity of twentieth century buildings. Goff seemed to agree Louis Sullivan¡¦s idea that ¡¥integral ornament¡¦ should be the ¡¥efflorescence of Structure¡¦ and to disagree Mies van der Rohe¡¦s maxim ¡¥less is more¡¦ . Goff persisted in his view of ornament as a personal statement, a mark of individuality, a garment designed by the architect to reflect the character of his client and the designer¡¦s own unique experience. Conclusion: Bruce Goff stood as one of the most individualistic figures of 20th century American architecture. That heroic position might be identified in the abstract of his inventive one-off architecture. His built work translated fantasy into form and defied scholarly pigeonholing. In his belief in an organic architecture, however, he retained close ties with his mentor, Frank Lloyd Wright, and with the Prairie School architects generally. During a career that spanned more than 60 years Bruce Goff designed nearly 500 buildings, and no two looked exactly alike. Many were startling in their originality, with extraordinary spatial effects, amplified by unexpected uses of materials and structure. All reflected a fundamental belief in the right to individual expression, a belief that Goff carried even further than Frank Lloyd Wright. The very personal nature of Goff's designs for his clients and Goff's continued use of innovative forms and materials for his buildings did not easily lend itself to stylistic imitation by other architects. Each of Goff's designs was an individual entity with it's own style and character. The independent, unpredictable, and highly personal qualities that permeated his work appealed to his clients, for in his buildings their own individualism seemed better defined. Goff¡¦s life, his work and his interactions fitted neatly within the round span of the twentieth century. The architecture of Goff might best summarize the many divergent influences of the century while simultaneously being least involved in the critical issues of the time. His creative intelligence had pushed certain architectural explorations well beyond those of any of his predecessors or contemporaries. Goff was perhaps more concerned with contributing to the evolutionary stream of architecture than the main stream. BibliographyBibilography ¡§Biographical Notes on Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, p. 6. ¡§Bruce Goff¡¦s Working Drawings.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 81-96. ¡§Genetrix: Personal Contributions to American Architecture.¡¨ Architectural Review, Vol. 27, No. 724, May, 1957, p. 292. ¡§Goff Rides Again.¡¨ Architectural Review, Vol. 133, No. 193, March, 1963, pp. 158-159. ¡§Great Builders of the 1960¡¦s.¡¨ Japan Architect, Vol. 45, No. 7-165, July, 1970, pp. 57-78. ¡§When the Designers Design for Themselves.¡¨ Architectural Forum, Vol. 117, July, 1962, pp. 104-109. Alan, Howard. ¡§An Introduction of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, December, 1979, pp. 4-5. Branch, Mark Alden. ¡§A Breed Apart.¡¨ Progressive Architecture, Vol. 73, June, 1992, pp. 68-73. Cook, Jeffrey. ¡§Bruce Goff¡¦s influence on American Architecture.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 75-80. Cook, Jeffrey. ¡§The Loner.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, September/December, 1982, p. 60. Cook, Jeffrey. The Architecture of Bruce Goff, New York: Harper and Row, 1978. Crosbie, Michael J. ¡§Bruce Goff¡¦s Bavinger House to Receive AIA¡¦s 25-Year Award.¡¨ Journal of the American Institute of Architects, Vol. 76, June, 1987, pp. 19-20. De Long, David. ¡§Bruce Goff and the Continuation of the Continuous Present.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 67-74. De Long, David. ¡§Bruce Goff, 1904-1982.¡¨ Progressive Architecture, September, 1982, pp. 29-30. De Long, David. ¡§Bruce Goff.¡¨ Journal of the American Institute of Architects, September, 1982, pp. 16-17. De Long, David. Bruce Goff Toward Absolute Architecture, New York: The MIT Press, 1988. De Long, David. The Architecture of Bruce Goff: Buildings and Projects 1916-1974, Vol. 1 & 2, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1977. Goff, Bruce. ¡§Bruce Goff: ¡¥As An Architect¡¦.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, p. 2. Goff, Bruce. ¡§Goff on Goff.¡¨ Progressive Architecture, Vol. 43, December, 1962, pp. 102-123. Goff, Bruce. Bavinger House, Norman, Oklahoma, 1950; Price House, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 1957-1966, Global Architecture, No. 33, edited and photographed by Yokio Futagawa, Toyko: A.D.A Edita, 1975. Greene, Herb. ¡§Recollections of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 52-54. Heron, Jane. ¡§The Duncan House.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, December, 1979, pp. 24-26. Heyer, Paul. Architects on Architecture: New Directions in America, New York: Walker and Company, 1966. Jacobus, John. Twentieth-Century Architecture: The Middle Years 1940-65, New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1966. Janssen, Hanni U. ¡§People who live in Goff houses.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, December, 1979, pp. 16-17. Jencks, Charles. ¡§Bruce Goff: The Michelangelo of Kitsch.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 10-14. Jencks, Charles. Late-Modern Architecture, New York: Rizzoli International publications, inc., 1980. Kent, Cheryl. ¡§When Optimism Prevailed.¡¨ Progressive Architecture, Vol. 76, August, 1995, pp. 45-46. Klotz, Heinrich. 20th Century Architecture, New York: Rizzoli International Publications Inc., 1989. Leigh, Betty. ¡§Goff in Mid-America.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, December, 1979, pp. 6-15. Leigh, Betty. ¡§Interview: Bruce Goff.¡¨ Inland Architect, Chicago, December, 1979, pp. 18-23. March, Lionel. ¡§Bruce Goff and the Architecture of Happiness: Reflections of Jeffrey Cook¡¦s Book-The Architecture of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, p. 6. McCoy, Esther. ¡§Bruce Goff.¡¨ Arts and Architecture, No. 3, 1983, pp. 15-18. Meehan, J. Patrick. Truth Against the World: Frank Lloyd Wright Speaks For an Organic Architecture, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1987. Merkel, Jayne. ¡§Bruce Goff.¡¨ Art in America, Dec, 1991, pp. 58-97. Mooring, Stephen. ¡§A Starting Point: Bruce Goff and His Clients.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, p. 15. Mooring, Stephen. ¡§Bruce Goff: An Ornamental Link.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 63-66. Mooring, Stephen. ¡§Building and Projects by Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 16-49. Murphy, William, and Louis Muller. A Portfolio of the Work of Bruce Goff, New York: The Architectural League of New York and the American Federation of the Arts, July 1, 1971. Nuttgens, Patrick. Understanding Modern Architecture, Great Britain: Unwin Hyman Limited, 1988. Perk, Ben Allan. ¡§The Architecture of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, Vol. 27, May, 1957, pp. 151-174. Plessix, Francine du, and Cleve Cray. ¡§Bruce Goff, Visionary Architect.¡¨ Art in America, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1965, pp. 82-87. Price, Joe. ¡§A Clients View of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 50-51. Robinson, Sidney. ¡§Op Arch: Perspective from a Goff House.¡¨ Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 41. Spring, 1988, pp. 62-64. Sachner, Paul M. ¡§Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Record, Vol. 176, September, 1988, pp. 92-97. Saliga, Pauline, and Mary Woolever, eds. The Architecture of Bruce Goff 1904-1982, New York: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1995. Segeant, John. ¡§An Introduction to Bruce Goff.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 3-5. Segeant, John. Frank Lloyd Wright¡¦s Usonian Houses: The Case for Organic Architecture, New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1976, pp. 160-164. Sergeant, John. ¡§Bruce Goff: The Strict Geometrist.¡¨ Architectural Design, England, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1978, pp. 55-62. Spade, Rupert. ¡§The Last of the Pioneers.¡¨ Architectural Design, Vol. 40, February, 1970, pp. 64-65. Waechter, H.H. ¡§The Architecture of Bruce Goff.¡¨ Journal of the American Institute of Architects, Vol. 32, No. 6, December, 1959, pp. 32-36. Welch, Philip B, ed. Goff on Goff, Norman: the University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

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Between Silence And Light

Between The Silence and The Light Introduction Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the unmeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these thoughts are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the music of architecture as we move through spaces while arcs of sunlight beam white light and shadow. Undoubtedly, Holl adopted this concept from its author, Louis I. Kahn. Unquestionably, I am referring to Silence and Light, a concept created and nurtured by Khan, and one that dominated the later half of his work. Kahn had chosen the word Silence to define the unmeasurable or that which has not yet come to be. According to Khan, the unmeasurable is the force that propels the creative spirit toward the measurable, to the Light. When the inspired has reached that which is, that which known, he has reached the Light. Eloquently expressing the architect's passion for design, Khan wrote Inspiration is the of feeling at the beginning at the threshold where Silence and Light meet. Silence, the unmeasurable, desire to be. Desire to express, the source of new need, meets Light, the measurable, giver of all presence, by will, by law, the measure of thing already made, at a threshold which is inspiration, the sanctuary of art, the treasury of shadow. Khan believed that in order for architectural theory to be credible, it had to be constructed. Thirty years ago, Khan began one of his most successful executions of the Silence and Light with the Library at Phillips Exeter Academy. This New Hampshire landmark physically illustrates and ideologically embodies many of Khan's concepts and incorporates many of his beliefs, synthesizing them into a tight little package with a powerful punch. The subtleties of materiality coupled with multiple plays of light truly embody the spirit of Khan's philosophy at Exeter Academy. As Stephen Holl concisely expresses Architecture is born when actual phenomena and the idea that drives it intersect…Meanings show through at this intersection of concept and experience. It is exactly Khan's blending of idea and design that makes this building a model for theoretical execution in design. The following essay will explore the many architectural implementations of Khan's theories from materials, to form, to function and to the Silence and Light. This investigation shall probe the ideology in conjunction with its realization to the approach, the circulation, the enclosure and the details. Additionally, the Library at Phillips Exeter Academy shall be analyzed in relationship to his theories on education, institutions and learning. As the quote I asked the building what it wanted to be has been often attributed to Louis Khan, I shall ask the question, What did Khan want the building to be, and how did he approach this challenge? Institutions and Education Khan believed that Institution stems from the inspiration to live. This inspiration remains meekly expressed in our institutions today. The three great inspirations are the inspiration to learn, the inspiration to meet, and the inspiration for well being. The architecture of Exeter Library captures the essence of these inspirations, offering opportunities for all of them to blossom. Khan continued They all serve, really, the will to be, to express. This is, you might say, the reason for living. It is this inspiration that enlivens the spirits of the students, and motivates them to study and learn. I may suggest then, that if the purpose of the institution lies within the Silence, then its physical materialization becomes the Light. If we assume that the desire to seek truth and universal knowledge is rooted in the Silence, then we may accept the school building to be the Light, more precisely spent light. Khan believed that the first schools emerged from the Silence, from the desire to learn. Schools began with a man under a tree, who did not know he was a teacher, discussing his realization with a few, who did not know they were students. The students aspired that their sons also listen to such a man. Spaces were erected and the first schools began. Since Khan believed the essence of learning institutions should reflect these origins, he concluded that the building should promote the fundamental inspiration of learning. Khan believed that students had as much to teach as teachers, that students inspired the teacher by their desire to be. Teaching is an act of singularity to singularity. It is not talking to a group. They teach you of your own singularity, because only a singularity can teach a singularity. Postulating that teaching could only happen when learning was present, Khan sought to embrace the singularity for students. Singularity is in the movement from Silence, which is the seat of the unmeasurable and the desire to be, to express, moving towards the means to express, which is material made of Light. Light comes to you because actually it is not divided; it is simply that which desires to be manifest, coming together with that which has become manifest. That movement meets at a point which may be called your singularity. In other words, the greatest potential of discovery stems from the meeting of the desire to learn and the desire to teach. Although Khan was fond of learning, he maintained contempt for the educational system. He believed that the the will to learn, the desire to learn, is one of the greatest inspirations. I am not that impressed by education. Learning, yes. Education is something, which is always on trial because no system can ever capture the real meaning of learning. Hence, the basic nature of learning is a personal desire to learn not a series of requirements dictated down by school boards. Khan theorized that for students, forced to memorize of dates, facts and formulas only to be forgotten soon after served no purpose in the realm of true learning. For Khan, teaching is an art form, an acquired talent that must be able to teach a man to fish, not feed him for a day. The work of students should not be directed to the solution of problems, but rather to sensing the nature of a thing. But you cannot know a nature without getting it out of your guts. You must sense what it is, and then you can look up what other people think it is. What you sense must belong to you, and the words of teaching must not in any way be in evidence, so completely has it been transformed into the singularity. Therefore, it is not the responsibility of the teacher to force students to process data nor to use mnemonics, but to provide the vehicle needed to access information Information plays an important role in forming our understanding of reality. However, the complexity of everyday life and surrounding environments is often unreadable to us unless seen as a combination of interrelating sub-elements. The situation is paradoxical: we no longer believe in mindless subdivisions of reality as a method to understand it, but at the same time, we do not easily comprehend the 'globallity' of everyday experience. In the design of the Exeter Library, Khan arranged a series of sub-elements, his ideas into a rich design thick with meaning and full of light. And only, through an independent study of each of these sub-elements does one have the opportunity to understand the overall structure. Defining and study of that interdependency of objects was the main theme of this investigation. I conclude then, at Phillips Exeter Academy, Khan began to manifest his beliefs into design, the Library gave Light to Khan's Silence. From the Silence to the Light. After receiving the commission for the Library at Phillips Exeter Academy, Louis Kahn first asked himself what a library should be. To guide his design process, his first objective was to ascertain the rudimental meaning of a library. It is good for the mind to go back to the beginning, because the beginning of any established activity is its most wonderful moment. Khan did not investigate antecedents, precedents, nor did he survey its potential users. Treating this library as if no other had come before it, Khan sought the basic nature of the institution. Kahn's design outline began with the declaration, I see a library as a place where the librarian can lay out the books, open especially to selected pages to seduce the readers. There should be a place with great tables on which the librarian can put the books, and the readers should be able to take the books and go to the light. This concise statement summarizes the essential quality of the Library design. Not only does this mission statement promote his philosophy toward learning, but it also describes the procession, the circulation, and the management and manipulation of its users. Kahn is stating the idea from which he will grow three different spaces: one where students would come together in the presence of books, another of the books, and a third for reading in the light. Since the movement of the user is of such great importance, that procession through the building shall become the outline for this analysis. Following this path, I shall proceed to illustrate the Silence behind the Light at the Exeter Library. I shall illustrate through photos and Khan's words, how I as the user experienced the Light. The Approach and Enclosure Extruding from the middle of a grass covered courtyard, the Library at Phillips Exeter Academy flanked on three sides by existing brick buildings embellished with New England Neo-Georgian flavor. This abundance of brick influenced Khan's decision making while selecting a material for the building exterior. He said, Brick was the most friendly material in the environment. I didn't want the building to be shockingly different in any way. I never lost my love of the old buildings. . On first glance, it appeared to me as if all the facades were the same, until after closer observation it became evident that there were small manipulations of wood and glazing. As I neared the facade, I also discovered variation in the width of the masonry piers between the windows. Kahn felt that it was important to be true to the nature of a material, It is important that you honor the material you use. You don't bandy it about as though to say, Well, we have a lot of material, we can do it one way, we can do it another way. It's not true. You must honor and glorify the brick instead of short-changing it and giving it an inferior job to do in which it loses its character, as, for example, when you use it as infill material, which I have done and you have done. Using brick so makes it feel as though it is a servant, and brick is a beautiful material. It has done beautiful work in many places and still does. Therefore the brick should be treated as a load-bearing material; not a veneer attached to a reinforced concrete frame. He argued further that the force of gravity and the weight of the masonry should be evident in the construction. Thus, as the Library's brick piers rise and the load they must carry decreases, they become progressively narrower. This action creates a dramatic as the movement of energy is seen as the eye travels the height of the fa├žade. As I studied the wall, I recalled Kahn's essay The Wall, the Column from Between Silence and Light The wall did well for man. In its thickness and its strength, it protected man against destruction. But soon, the will to look out made man make a hole in the wall, and the wall was pained, and said, What are you doing to me? I protected you; I made you feel secure-and now you put a hole through me! And man said, But I see wonderful things, and I want to look out. And the wall felt very sad. Later man didn't just hack a hole through the wall, but made a discerning opening, one trimmed with fine stone, and he put a lintel over the opening. And soon the wall felt pretty well. Consider also the momentous event in architecture when the wall parted and the column became. Upon my approach I noticed the arcade that formed the base of the structures was cast in shadow, and the entrance was not apparent immediately. Due to the language of modern architecture, this absence of hierarchy would not normally surprise me. However, since Khan was one of a few modernists who believed in Hierarchy, I was dumbfounded by its dearth. Only through research did I discover Khan's true intent, From all sides (of the campus) there is an entrance. If you are scurrying in a rain to get to the building, you can come in at any point and find your entrance. It's a continuous campus style entrance. Unfortunately, as in my case, I entered the arcade from the east and walked south and had to circumnavigate the entire building before I found the front entrance. As I walked between the light and shadow of the arcade, my senses tingled with delight of knowing something special awaited inside. Walking through the arcade, I noticed at closer detail that Khan had continued to honor the brick by creating flat arch lintels at the opening as he had done with the facade. Again I was reminded of Khan's writings If you think of brick, and you're consulting the Orders, you consider the nature of brick. You say to brick, What do you want, brick? Brick says to you, I like an arch. If you say to brick, Arches are expensive, and I can use a concrete lintel over an opening. What do you think of that, brick? Brick says, I like an arch. It was at this moment that I began to realize that Khan had truly traveled from the Silence to the Light. The Seduction Inside After experiencing the exterior plaza, I was immediately greeted by a sweeping, grand curved monumental stair upon entering the library. Made of marble to reinforce its monumental nature, the stair entices you up a flight to the main level. In an almost ceremonial procession, the invitation to explore further is overwhelming. As I have previously stated, it was Kahn's intention to create three different spaces: one where students would come together in the presence of books, another of the books, and a third for reading in the light. It is at the top of these stairs, in the grand central hall that the invitation or presence of books begins. It is in this space that the librarians, as khan hoped, lay out the books, open especially to selected pages to seduce the readers. The books are set on tables as well as in case. In addition, the book carts, so important to the function of the librarian's job, are kept in full view, alerting the user to the lifeblood of the library. At a more essential level, however the design of the building itself participates in the seduction of the user. Moving up the stair and standing in the hall, users can look through the large circular openings and into the main book stacks of the library. These large circles of the central hall are the windows from where the sirens of books call out the user, seducing the student to venture to the second space, the place of books. It is also an opportunity to allow the books to speak to each other, from either side or from a different floor, a form of social interaction of the spaces. When Kahn spoke of the plan, he desired to create the interaction of space to space, from light to light. I think that a plan is a society of rooms. A real plan is one in which rooms have spoken to each other. When you see a plan, you can say that it is the structure of the spaces in their light . Along the perimeter of the central hall Khan design shelving with counter space for the presentation of books. Once the user has reached this destination, he shall enter the place of books. The stacks are situated in a utilitarian atmosphere, with basic industrial style lighting. The exposure to concrete is in remarkable contrast to the warmth of the brick reading areas. Once the user selects a book, he proceeds to the third function of space, the reading areas. The first reading area, the carrels form the perimeter ring at the exterior walls of the library. In addition, Khan provided private reading rooms for the faculty, and an exterior arcade. This meeting place occurs on the roof, in the presence of the truest forms of light, the sun. Homage to the Light When one experiences the Library at Phillips Exeter Academy, he or she cannot help but notice the constant shifting of Silence and Light. It is almost a dance between the shadow and light, one that effect the spirit and mood of each space and its user. The performance of light begins at the base, as the piers create a rhythm of lightness and darkness and travels the height of the facade. From the ever-changing color of the brick to the depth of the window openings, light dances its way across the building enclosure. As the natural light penetrates the interior, Khan skillfully controls its every movement throughout the interior spaces. Kahn's truly impressive use of light emanates in its execution to the three functions of the library. As Khan had stated A plan of a building shall read like a harmony of spaces in light. Even a space intended to be dark should have just enough light from some mysterious opening to tell us how dark it really is. Each space must be defined by its structure and the character of its natural light. In this utilitarian stairwell, the source of light emanates from a deflecting path of glass and wall. Understanding the importance for various sources, type and intensity of light, Khan design the library to take advantage light's many properties. Khan provided three distinct areas of light for the each of his important spaces. The areas for reading in the Light received natural light that was skillfully designed to enhance without inhibiting the ability to read, Glare is bad in the library; wall space is important. Little spaces where you can adjourn with a book are tremendously important, Khan wrote about the Exeter Library. Khan believed the potential of learning was just as great from looking out the window as from reading a book, however he also understood the need to limit the outside distractions, both of people and of light. . At the perimeter he allowed the light to enliven the reading area, yet he controlled the glare at the reading carrels, through window height and the use of sliding shutters. In areas of more serious study, he limited the windows to a source of light from a clerestory. Because the rays of direct sunlight are harmful to books, Khan used dim fluorescent lighting in the place of books, offering only enough to allow the user to find a book. This action however, somewhat contradicts his previous statements on artificial light Space can never reach its place in architecture without natural light. Artificial light is the light of night expressed in positioned chandeliers not to be compared with the unpredictable play of natural light Khan understood the materials and their reactions toward the light. At Exeter, the meaning of light is a demonstration of Kahn's most profound philosophical beliefs. As a result of ever-changing external conditions, the interior space comes alive with a constant flux of light and shade. The room exists in the realm of shadows, that is, between the silence of ideas and the light of material reality. Quite possibly one of Kahn's most notable innovations in the control of light is found in the ceiling of the great hall. With the light tower of Yale University Art Gallery, we are familiar with Khan's principle of light blades which deflect light downward and simultaneously perform structural functions. Additionally, the cross shape emphasizes the centrality of the space. As one can see in the photo to the left, it concisely illustrates all three important conditions of light; the invitation of books, the place of books, and the reading in the light. Conclusion The Library at Phillips Exeter Academy is the Light, the physical manifestation of Khan's theories and writings. This project is more about the accumulation of experience or intention of idea than just a place to store and read books. It goes beyond the realm of the known, beyond the mortar and bricks. It is the threshold between the Silence and the Light. If our impression of a building is defined by our knowledge of space, by what we see at a particular moment or what we just saw a few seconds ago, then it is also what we would like to see. However, if we attempt to see a larger world, one that includes that which is not yet along with that which is, as the creative artist, scientist, and architect must, then a more powerful discipline is needed, one used by the poets, which the ancient Chinese Taoist philosopher Lao Tzu called the Tao, the existential philosopher Martin Heidegger called Being, and Louis Kahn called Order. In his essay on Architecture, Khan said You must follow the laws of nature and use quantities of brick, methods of construction, and engineering. But in the end, when the building becomes part of living, it evokes unmeasurable qualities, and the spirit of its existence takes over. Thus, space can be seen also as possibility ... present in our imagination. The question of physical existence is inappropriate. More appropriately, one should ask For what is an architectural concept if not the material and spatial expression of spiritual intentions? BibliographyBrownlee, David B. and David G. De Long. Lois I Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. New York, Rizzoli, 1991. Buttiker, Urs. Louis I. Khan: Light and Space, Basel, Birkhuser Verlag, 1994. Holl, Stephen. Phenomena and Idea Date Visited 5/10/99 Jordy, William H. The Span of Kahn, Architectural review 155, no. 928. June 1974 Khan, Louis I. Silence and Light: Louis Kahn's Words in Between Silence and Light, John Lobell, Boulder, Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1979. Khan, Louis I. Bibliotecas - Libraries, New York, Garland, 1988. Lobell, John. Between Silence and Light, Boulder, Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1979. Ronner, H., Jhaveri, S. Complete Work 1935-74, Basel, Birkhuser Verlag, 2nd Ed., 1987. Wiggens, Glen E., Louis I Kahn: The Library at Phillips Exeter Academy, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. Wurman, Richard Saul, Ed. What Will Be Has Always Been: The Words of Louis I. Khan. New York, Access Press and Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1986. Wurman, R.S., What will be has always been. The words of Louis I. Kahn. Progressive Architecture 1969, special edition, wanting to be: the Philadelphia School. p.89.Cambridge, MA and London, England, MIT Press, 1973 Wurman, R.S., Feldman, E. The Notebooks and Drawings of Louis I. Khan. Cambridge, MA and London, England, MIT Press, 1973

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Architecture: An Excellent Career Choice

The career I have chosen for this project is Architecture. A building architect to be more specific. The career has many characteristics of work that I wish to pursue as I grow up. The main idea is thinking of new, and visually nice designs to grab your client’s attention for them to buy your design. It also is a job were mathematics and now computer training is needed. The nature of work of an Architect is basically the design of building and other structures. The design of the building must not only be creative and what the client wants, but their is many different regulations and rules to follow to make the building affordable, safe, and proper size for it to fit in its specifically picked out plantation. First the Architect and the client must discuss the basic idea of the project, giving him basic ideas like size, shape, number of rooms and budget. The Architect will then make blue prints or drawing of his ideas, then present them to the client or clients who he is working for, to see if they like his idea and if they have any comments or suggestions that they would like to get met. If the clients like that idea of the building, the Architect must then draw final construction plans which show the building’s general appearance and details for it’s construction. Such details as the air-conditioning, ventilation and electrical systems to name a few. Architects now sometimes turn to computer-aided design and drafting or (CADD) only a few Architects will plan all their work out by hand anymore. The working conditions of the Architect are pretty lenient; they like to work in comfortable environments, some times at home or an office to make up their designs. This is mainly why I want to pursue this profession, because of the liberal, flexible use of your time. But most of their time is spent going to their client’s offices or working with other architect. Also sometimes they will go to the construction site of where their design is being built to see how things are running and to make sure they built it as he wanted or to answer any questions. Architects some times have to work long hours and weekends to meet specific deadlines, which can start to be very stressful. The training and education for architects isn’t any thing outrageous. All states require an architect to be licensed before he/she starts to make their own designs. Before they are licensed they are called intern-architects, basically just helping prepare construction designs or assisting in the design. This training period gives them basic work experience while they prepare for the Architect Registration Examination (ARE). A licensed architect is required to take all legal responsibility for all their work. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. The majority of all architecture degrees are from a five-year Bachelor of Architecture programs. Some schools offer a two-year Master of Architecture program for students with a professional undergraduate degree in architecture. It is very helpful for the architect to have artistic and drawing ability to visually show their ideas to clients, but it is not an absolute requirement. Good communication skills, the ability to work alone or as a part of a team are also important as well as creativity are also important qualities to have for any one who wishes to pursue a career in architecture. The job outlook for an architect is average. Because of so many businesses’ expanding and population consistently growing, there is a growing demand for new building, houses, developments and other structures of that sort. But prominent architects may face competition especially if the numbers of architectural degrees stay at or increase above its current level. Many people are interested in the field, and the numbers of applicants sometimes exceed the number of available jobs. Although the needed renovation of old-buildings, especially in urban areas where space for new building is becoming limited, is expected to give many job opportunities for architects. The earnings for architects start at around $27,000 for intern-architects. Licensed architects with three to five years of experience have an expected earning of around $33,000. Architects with eight to ten years of experience, but do not work for a firm earn around $45, 000. Partners of firms earn from $75,000 to $100,000, although some partners for larger firms earn quite more. After all the information I have gathered about the field of architecture I still think I would like to take this up as a career. The job opportunities are small in some places, but here in the Bay Area it should be very plentiful. This career will be something that seems to be challenging and rewarding. Just imagine the possibilities a career in architecture could bring. For instance, one could build his or her fully customized dream house one day, loaded with one’s own personal touches. Another benefit would be a very flexible daily schedule. These are just some examples of the benefits this job can bring. I believe that I am a creative and artistic person. I love to build scale models and I also love to work in the area of building construction. With all these skills combined, it will be to my advantage to be an architect, giving me a very good chance to be extremely successful in this firm. Bibliography1) Landscape Architecture Schauman, Sally. ASLA Council on Education. Washington, DC: 1997 2) Architecture Careers Encyclopedia. Third Edition. Lincolnwood, Illinois: VGM Career Horizons. 1991 3) Concise Handbook of Occupations Costello, Joan M. and Rita Parsont Wolfson, editors.. Chicago, Illinois: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company. 1975.

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