- culture concept first clear definition developed by British anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor - examples of species of animals that lead a social existence without culture: ants, bees therefore, society can exist without culture, but culture cannot exist without society - no member of a society has exact version of his/her culture as another - gender: the meanings cultures assign to the biological differences of the sexes -therefore, one’s sexual identity or gender is culturally constructed - gender differences are as old as human culture- about 2.5 mill. yrs. -“ “ arose from biological differences - relationships between food foragers are open although both sexes usually do not carry out same tasks - subculture: a distinctive set of standards & behavior patterns that a group within a larger society operates by - example of subculture: Amish (who rely on horse for transportation as well as agriculture & have their own set of ideas dissimilar as well as similar to the society) - old-order Amish originated in Austria and Moravia during Reformation- now mainly populate Ohio, Indiana & Pennsylvania - pluralistic societies: societies that have a diversity of cultural patterns -

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